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The "Suffering Servant" of ch.53 of Y'shayahu
by Prof. Mordochai ben-Tziyyon, Universitah Ha'ivrit, Y'rushalayim
|הִנֵּ֥ה יַשְׂכִּ֖יל עַבְדִּ֑י יָרוּ֧ם וְנִשָּׂ֛א וְגָבַ֖הּ מְאֹֽד׃|
|52:13. My "servant" will succeed in becoming uplifted, and will become exalted and very powerful.|
|My servant - Yisraél.|
|כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר שָֽׁמְמ֤וּ עָלֶ֨יךָ֙ רַבִּ֔ים כֵּֽן־מִשְׁחַ֥ת מֵאִ֖ישׁ מַרְאֵ֑הוּ וְתֹֽאֲר֖וֹ מִבְּנֵ֥י אָדָֽם׃|
|52:14. Just as many used to marvel about you and say "Their appearance is too hideous to be human",|
|"Their appearance is too hideous to be human" - Hebrews have frequently been carricatured as hideously ugly: deformed, swarthy and with exaggerated hooked noses.|
|כֵּ֤ן יַזֶּה֙ גּוֹיִ֣ם רַבִּ֔ים עָלָ֛יו יִקְפְּצ֥וּ מְלָכִ֖ים פִּיהֶ֑ם כִּ֠י אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹֽא־סֻפַּ֤ר לָהֶם֙ רָא֔וּ וַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־שָֽׁמְע֖וּ הִתְבּוֹנָֽנוּ׃|
|52:15. so will He [i.e. God] scatter many nations − their kings will be speechless because [suddenly] they will see things that were never talked about and will realise things that were never heard of [before]!|
|He will scatter - Hebrew יַזֶּה yazzeh, the same verb as that used for the "splashing" of the blood of the atonement sacrifices by the Chief Kohén in Vayikra 16:14.|
will be speechless - literally "will shut their mouths". They will be so astonished that they will not know what to say.
things that were never talked about... that were never heard of [before] - a nation so universally despised and derided rising to such eminence.
|מִ֥י הֶֽאֱמִ֖ין לִשְׁמֻֽעָתֵ֑נוּ וּזְר֥וֹעַ יְיָ֖ עַל־מִ֥י נִגְלָֽתָה׃|
|53:1. Who would have believed our report [they will say,] about the ones that Adonai's Arm was revealed to?|
|"our report" - who can believe what we used to say about Yisraél?|
"Adonai's Arm" - a reference to the Exodus (see Sh'mot 6:6, D'varim 4:34, 5:15, 26:8, M'lachim Beit 17:36 and many similar references).
|וַיַּ֨עַל כַּיּוֹנֵ֜ק לְפָנָ֗יו וְכַשֹּׁ֨רֶשׁ֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ צִיָּ֔ה לֹא־תֹ֥אַר ל֖וֹ וְלֹ֣א הָדָ֑ר וְנִרְאֵ֥הוּ וְלֹֽא־מַרְאֶ֖ה וְנֶחְמְדֵֽהוּ׃|
|53:2. For they came up before Him like a suckling babe, like a root out of dry ground; they had neither appearance nor splendour; and, when we saw how unattractive they were, [we said] "Why should we desire them?"|
|"they" - literally "he", i.e. God's "servant", Yisraél|
"came up" - out of Egypt, the usual Scriptural terminology for Yisraél's departure from Egypt, as in Sh'mot 13:18 and many other places. Leaving Egypt is described as "going up" for two reasons: firstly, the Goshen region where Yisraél had been living (in the Nile Delta) is very low-lying, so the people "went up" in a very literal sense when they left; and secondly, because Egypt was a God-less place so that Yisraél also "went up" in a spiritual sense when they left there.
"before Him" - almost immediately after leaving Egypt, Yisraél appeared before God at Mount Ḥorev in the Sinai Desert.
"like a suckling babe" - a similar metaphor for the "newly-born" Yisraél nation to that used by Hoshé'a when he says "When Yisraél was a lad, I loved him..." (11:1).
"they had neither appearance nor splendour" - the newly-liberated slaves were ungroomed and unkempt.
|נִבְזֶה֙ וַֽחֲדַ֣ל אִישִׁ֔ים אִ֥ישׁ מַכְאֹב֖וֹת וִיד֣וּעַ חֹ֑לִי וּכְמַסְתֵּ֤ר פָּנִים֙ מִמֶּ֔נּוּ נִבְזֶ֖ה וְלֹ֥א חֲשַׁבְנֻֽהוּ׃|
|53:3. They were despised and isolated from humanity − men of pains, accustomed to illness; they were despised like those that people turn their faces away from and we considered them worthless.|
|Can anyone deny that all these things have been said about Yisraél in the past (and are still being said about us today by some)?|
|אָכֵ֤ן חֳלָיֵ֨נוּ֙ ה֣וּא נָשָׂ֔א וּמַכְאֹבֵ֖ינוּ סְבָלָ֑ם וַֽאֲנַ֣חְנוּ חֲשַׁבְנֻ֔הוּ נָג֛וּעַ מֻכֵּ֥ה אֱלֹהִ֖ים וּמְעֻנֶּֽה׃|
|53:4. Indeed, they tolerated our ills and our pains − they bore them; but [we convinced ourselves that] they were being plagued, stricken by God and afflicted.|
|"they tolerated our ills and bore our pains" - they (Yisraél) were forced to put up with all the "ills" and "pains" that we brought upon them.|
"we convinced ourselves" - the "gentile kings" are too embarassed to reveal their own foolishness by actually articulating the words "we convinced ourselves", but they are nonetheless implied − indeed, verses 2 through 5 all end with a statement of what "we" said or thought.
|וְהוּא֙ מְחֹלָ֣ל מִפְּשָׁעֵ֔ינוּ מְדֻכָּ֖א מֵֽעֲוֺֽנֹתֵ֑ינוּ מוּסַ֤ר שְׁלוֹמֵ֨נוּ֙ עָלָ֔יו וּבַֽחֲבֻֽרָת֖וֹ נִרְפָּא־לָֽנוּ׃|
|53:5. They were pained because of our rebellious sins and crushed because of our iniquities; [we thought that] punishing them would benefit ourselves, and through their wounds we would be healed.|
|"they were pained because of our rebellious sins, crushed because of our iniquities" - we caused them (Yisraél) much pain and suffering by our own rebellious sinning.|
"[we thought that] punishing them..." - see commentary on verse 4 (s.v. "we convinced ourselves").
|כֻּלָּ֨נוּ֙ כַּצֹּ֣אן תָּעִ֔ינוּ אִ֥ישׁ לְדַרְכּ֖וֹ פָּנִ֑ינוּ וַֽייָ֙ הִפְגִּ֣יעַ בּ֔וֹ אֵ֖ת עֲוֺ֥ן כֻּלָּֽנוּ׃|
|53:6. We strayed like sheep, each one of us turned in his own direction, but Adonai accepted their prayers for the iniquity of all of us.|
|"We strayed like sheep..." - the "gentile kings" frankly confess their own guilt.|
"but Adonai accepted their prayers" - even though we persecuted Yisraél grievously and unjustly, they nevertheless prayed on our behalf and we were forgiven by God (see also verse 12).
|נִגַּ֨שׂ וְה֣וּא נַֽעֲנֶה֘ וְלֹ֣א יִפְתַּח־פִּיו֒ כַּשֶּׂה֙ לַטֶּ֣בַח יוּבָ֔ל וּכְרָחֵ֕ל לִפְנֵ֥י גֹֽזְזֶ֖יהָ נֶֽאֱלָ֑מָה וְלֹ֥א יִפְתַּ֖ח פִּֽיו׃|
|53:7. They were persecuted and afflicted, but they did not protest; they would be prepared like a seh for a feast or like a raḥel that is silent before her shearers; they would not open their mouths.|
|seh (Hebrew שֶׂה)—a young kid or lamb (see Sh'mot 12:5)|
raḥel (Hebrew רָחֵל)—a "ewe", i.e. an adult female sheep.
"they would be prepared like a seh for a feast - how tragically, and how literally, was this fulfilled during the numerous autos da fé of the centuries-long christian "Inquisitions" and at the Nazi death-camps of the 1930s and 1940s!
|מֵעֹ֤צֶר וּמִמִּשְׁפָּט֙ לֻקָּ֔ח וְאֶת־דּוֹר֖וֹ מִ֣י יְשׂוֹחֵ֑חַ כִּ֤י נִגְזַר֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ חַיִּ֔ים מִפֶּ֥שַׁע עַמִּ֖י נֶ֥גַע לָֽמוֹ׃|
|53:8. Now that they have been released from detention and judgement, who could have imagined such a generation? for they were removed far from the land where they lived, and a plague came upon them through the transgression of my people.|
|"Now that they have been released..." - when Yisraél's long exile is finally ended, the gentiles will marvel that we could have survived such a long absence (sinfully inflicted upon us by them) from our own land.|
"the land where they lived" - literally, "the land of [their] life".
"a plague" - the term "plague" (Hebrew נֶֽגַע, nega') is used in the Scriptures to denote all forms of suffering.
"came upon them" - on this one occasion, the Hebrew text uses the plural form "them" (לָֽמוֹ lamo is a poetic synonym for לָהֶם lahem, "to them").
|וַיִּתֵּ֤ן אֶת־רְשָׁעִים֙ קִבְר֔וֹ וְאֶת־עָשִׁ֖יר בְּמֹתָ֑יו עַ֚ל לֹֽא־חָמָ֣ס עָשָׂ֔ה וְלֹ֥א מִרְמָ֖ה בְּפִֽיו׃|
|53:9. They submitted to the grave with the wicked and joined with the wealthy in their deaths, even though they had committed no crime and there was no deceit in their mouths.|
|"They submitted to the grave with the wicked..." - treated like common criminals, they submitted to the Divine Will and accepted God's judgement upon them.|
"even though they had committed no crime..." - this does not mean that every Hebrew who was ever persecuted was totally flawless; guilt and innocence are relative concepts and even if they had been guilty of minor infringements they did not deserve the inhuman treatment to which they were subjected.
It is common for christians to think of the terms "righteous" and "wicked" as absolutes, referring to people who are either totally "good" or thoroughly "evil" − but life is not that black-and-white. No man is ever 100% "good" OR 100% "evil" − all of us are somewhere in between. The Hebrew words tzaddik ("righteous") and rasha ("wicked") are used as relative terms as can be seen, for example, from D'varim 25:1 − "If there is a dispute between two men and they bring it before a Court and you judge them, then you shall rule in favour of the 'tzaddik' and against the 'rasha'...".
|וַֽייָ֞ חָפֵ֤ץ דַּכְּאוֹ֙ הֶֽחֱלִ֔י אִם־תָּשִׂ֤ים אָשָׁם֙ נַפְשׁ֔וֹ יִרְאֶ֥ה זֶ֖רַע יַֽאֲרִ֣יךְ יָמִ֑ים וְחֵ֥פֶץ יְיָ֖ בְּיָד֥וֹ יִצְלָֽח׃|
|53:10. It was Adonai who desired to persecute them − He plagued them; their souls needed only to acknowledge their guilt and then they would see their offspring [live] and have long life, and that which Adonai desires would prosper in their hands.|
|"It was Adonai who desired to persecute them" - The persecution inflicted upon Yisraél by the gentile nations was in fact God's intention... those gentile nations were actually acting as God's agents, even though they did not realise it; they were being used by Him to punish us for our rebellion and ultimately to bring us back to serving Him, so we would be worthy to fulfil our rôle in leading the World to His service.|
"He plagued them" - It was God Himself who caused our persecution by the gentile nations.
"their souls needed only to acknowledge their guilt..." - The reason He caused us to be persecuted was to make us repent and acknowledge our guilt.
"that which Adonai desires" - the final rehabilitation of Yisraél and the emergence of the King-Messiah who will usher in the final stage of Mankind's evolution when all will live in peace, serving God and Him alone.
|מֵֽעֲמַ֤ל נַפְשׁוֹ֙ יִרְאֶ֣ה יִשְׂבָּ֔ע בְּדַעְתּ֗וֹ יַצְדִּ֥יק צַדִּ֛יק עַבְדִּ֖י לָֽרַבִּ֑ים וַעֲוֺֽנֹתָ֖ם ה֥וּא יִסְבֹּֽל׃|
|53:11. In their souls' turmoil they will realise [the purpose] and accept [it]; the righteous among My "servant" will be vindicated publicly by their knowledge, because they had to tolerate their wrongdoings.|
|"In their souls' turmoil" - Throughout the centuries of Yisraél's suffering at the hands of the gentile nations.|
"they will realise [the purpose] and they will accept [it]" - Yisraél will come to understand why God allowed so much suffering to come upon us and will accept His judgement.
"the righteous among My 'servant' will be vindicated publicly by their knowledge" - the torah-scholars will eventually receive the respect and recognition they deserve.
"because they" (Yisraél) "had to tolerate their" (the gentiles') "wrongdoings" (against us).
|לָכֵ֞ן אֲחַלֶּק־ל֣וֹ בָֽרַבִּ֗ים וְאֶת־עֲצוּמִים֘ יְחַלֵּ֣ק שָׁלָל֒ תַּ֗חַת אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֶֽעֱרָ֤ה לַמָּ֨וֶת֙ נַפְשׁ֔וֹ וְאֶת־פֹּֽשְׁעִ֖ים נִמְנָ֑ה וְהוּא֙ חֵֽטְא־רַבִּ֣ים נָשָׂ֔א וְלַפֹּֽשְׁעִ֖ים יַפְגִּֽיעַ׃|
|53:12. Therefore I will assign to them an allocation among the many and they will share out the powerful as plunder, because they gave up their souls in death and were considered as outcasts, and even when suffering the sins of the many they were praying for those wicked ones.|
|"I will assign to them an allocation among the many" - God will eventually raise Yisraél to the full status of an independent nation in the World's eyes.|
"they will share out the powerful as plunder" - ultimately Yisraél will triumph over its enemies.
"they gave up their souls in death and were considered as outcasts" - i.e. submitted to persecution by their enemies.
"even when suffering the sins of the many they were praying for those wicked ones" - Hebrews have always prayed for the governments and people of whatever country they were living in, even while they were being persecuted in those lands, as the prophet Yirm'yahu, speaking in God's Name, had advised the exiled deportees in Babylonia: וְדִרְשׁ֞וּ אֶת־שְׁל֣וֹם הָעִ֗יר אֲשֶׁ֨ר הִגְלֵ֤יתִי אֶתְכֶם֙ שָׁ֔מָּה וְהִתְפַּֽלְל֥וּ בַֽעֲדָ֖הּ אֶל־יְיָ֑ כִּ֣י בִשְׁלוֹמָ֔הּ יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶ֖ם שָׁלֽוֹם "Work for the welfare of the city to which I have exiled you and pray to God for it, because your own well-being is dependent on its well-being" (Yirm'yahu 29:7).
Compare verse 6 above.
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†潧杯敬慴敤楦敮汓瑯✨㤯㤵㌶㤵⼶剔彉扡癯彥㈷砸〹摟灦Ⱗ嬠㈷ⰸ㤠崰搧癩札瑰愭ⵤ㐱〵〲ㄴ㤵㈱ⴶ✱⸩摡卤牥楶散木潯汧瑥条瀮扵摡⡳⤩†朠潯汧瑥条搮晥湩卥潬⡴⼧㔹㘹㔳㘹启䥒扟汥睯㝟㠲㥸弰晤❰㝛㠲〹ⱝ✠楤灧摡ㄭ㔴㈰㐰㔱ㄹ㘲㈭⤧愮摤敓癲捩⡥潧杯敬慴異慢獤⤨㬩 †潧杯敬慴異慢獤⤨攮慮汢卥湩汧剥煥敵瑳⤨†朠潯汧瑥条攮慮汢卥牥楶散⡳㬩 ⥽⼼捳楲瑰ਾਊ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴‾⠊畦据楴湯椨噳††晩 椡噳⤠ †笠 †††爠瑥牵㭮 †素 †瘠牡愠䵤牧㴠渠睥䄠䵤湡条牥⤨††慶祬潣彳牰摯獟瑥㴠愠䵤牧挮潨獯健潲畤瑣敓⡴㬩 †瘠牡猠潬獴㴠嬠氢慥敤扲慯摲Ⱒ∠敬摡牥潢牡㉤Ⱒ∠潴汯慢彲浩条≥琢潯扬牡瑟硥≴猢慭汬潢≸琢灯灟潲潭Ⱒ∠潦瑯牥∲猢楬敤≲㭝 †瘠牡愠䍤瑡㴠琠楨祬潣彳摡损瑡来牯㭹 †愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭瀧条❥愨䍤瑡☠…摡慃浤穯 ‿摡慃浤穯㨠✠敭扭牥⤧††晩⠠桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⥹ †笠 †††愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭欢祥潷摲Ⱒ琠楨祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲㬩 †素ਠ††汥敳椠⡦摡慃⁴☦愠䍤瑡昮湩彤桷瑡††††††摡杍敳䙴牯散偤牡浡✨敫睹牯❤摡慃楦摮睟慨⥴†††† †映牯⠠慶湩猠潬獴††††††慶汳瑯㴠猠潬獴獛㭝 †††椠愨䵤牧椮即潬䅴慶汩扡敬猨潬⥴††††††††††桴獩氮捹獯慟孤汳瑯⁝‽摡杍敧却潬⡴汳瑯㬩 †††素 †素ਊ††摡杍敲摮牥效摡牥⤨††摡杍敲摮牥潆瑯牥⤨⡽昨湵瑣潩⡮ 瘊牡眠㴠〠‽ⰰ洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯‽〳㬰ਊ晩⠠潴⁰㴽猠汥⥦笊 †爠瑥牵牴敵晩⠠祴数景眨湩潤湩敮坲摩桴 㴽✠畮扭牥‧††⁷‽楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤㭨 †栠㴠眠湩潤湩敮䡲楥桧㭴紊攊獬晩⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮☠…搨捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮楗瑤籼搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笊 †眠㴠搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨 †栠㴠搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮效杩瑨汥敳椠搨捯浵湥潢祤☠…搨捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笊 †眠㴠搠捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴††‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮效杩瑨敲畴湲⠠眨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤☠…栨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤㬩紊⤨⤩㬩ਊਊ眊湩潤湯潬摡㴠映湵瑣潩⡮††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤䘢潯整䅲≤㬩 †瘠牡戠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭∨潢祤⤢せ㭝 †戠愮灰湥䍤楨摬昨㬩 †映献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠∠汢捯≫††潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氧捹獯潆瑯牥摁䙩慲敭⤧献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤潦瑯牥摁椮牦浡瑨汭㬧 †ਠਊ†† †⼠ 佄⁍湉摁 †⠠畦据楴湯椨味敲汬硩††††††慶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨晩慲敭⤧††††瑳汹潢摲牥㴠✠✰††††瑳汹慭杲湩㴠〠††††瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戧潬正㬧 †††攠献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽爧杩瑨㬧 †††攠献祴敬栮楥桧⁴‽㈧㐵硰㬧 †††攠献祴敬漮敶晲潬⁷‽栧摩敤❮††††瑳汹慰摤湩‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬眮摩桴㴠✠〳瀰❸ਊ††††慶獩求歯摥祂潄慭湩㴠映湵瑣潩⡮栠敲††††††††††慶汢捯敫䑤浯楡獮㴠嬠 †††††††∠湡湡慹潰湲㌱〰⸰牴灩摯挮浯Ⱒ †††††††∠硸灸牯确硸琮楲潰潣≭ †††††崠††††††慶汦条㴠映污敳†††††† †††††映牯 慶㵩㬰椠戼潬正摥潄慭湩敬杮桴※⭩††††††††††††††晩 牨晥献慥捲⡨戠潬正摥潄慭湩孳椠崠⤠㸠‽‰††††††††††††††††††汦条㴠琠畲㭥 †††††††素 †††††素 †††††爠瑥牵汦条†††† †††瘠牡朠瑥敍慴潃瑮湥⁴‽畦据楴湯 敭慴慎敭⤠ †††笠 †††††瘠牡洠瑥獡㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨敭慴⤧††††††潦椨〽※㱩敭慴敬杮桴※⭩⤫ †††††笠ਠ††††††††晩 敭慴孳嵩朮瑥瑁牴扩瑵⡥渢浡≥ 㴽洠瑥乡浡††††††††⁻ †††††††††爠瑥牵敭慴孳嵩朮瑥瑁牴扩瑵⡥挢湯整瑮⤢※ †††††††素ਠ††††††††††††敲畴湲映污敳†††††††† †††瘠牡朠瑥潃浭湥乴摯獥㴠映湵瑣潩⡮敲敧偸瑡整湲††††††††††慶潮敤‽絻††††††慶潮敤䅳㴠嬠㭝 †††††瘠牡瀠敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩⁴‽❛❡挧Ⱗ✠❢㭝 †††ਠ††††††昨湵瑣潩敧乴摯獥桔瑡慈敶潃浭湥獴渨慰瑴牥⥮ †††††笠 †††††††椠渨栮獡桃汩乤摯獥⤨††††††††††††††††††晩⠠慴乧浡㴽‽䤧剆䵁❅††††††††††††††††††††††敲畴湲映污敳††††††††††††††††††††潦瘨牡椠㴠〠※‼档汩乤摯獥氮湥瑧㭨椠⬫††††††††††††††††††††††晩⠠渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯呥灹㴽‽⤸☠…瀨瑡整湲琮獥⡴档汩乤摯獥楛潮敤慖畬⥥⤩ †††††††††††笠 †††††††††††††瘠牡愠敲乡浡‽慰瑴牥硥捥渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯噥污敵嬩崱††††††††††††††潮敤孳牡慥慎敭⁝‽㭮 †††††††††††素 †††††††††††攠獬晩⠠档汩乤摯獥楛潮敤祔数㴠㴽ㄠ††††††††††††††††††††††††††敧乴摯獥桔瑡慈敶潃浭湥獴渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩慰瑴牥⥮††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††⡽潤畣敭瑮戮摯ⱹ爠来硥慐瑴牥⥮㬩ਊ††††††潦瘨牡椠椠牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳††††††††††††††晩⠠潮敤孳牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳楛嵝††††††††††††††††††晩 獩牔汥楬⁸☦渠摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯††††††††††††††††††††††潮敤䅳瀮獵⡨潮敤孳牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳楛嵝瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤㬩 †††††††††素 †††††††††攠獬††††††††††††††††††††††潮敤䅳瀮獵⡨渠摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩⁝㬩 †††††††††素 †††††††素 †††††素 †††††爠瑥牵潮敤䅳†††††††† †††ਠ††††慶牰灯牥潎敤㴠渠汵㭬 †††瘠牡愠敲乡摯獥㴠朠瑥潃浭湥乴摯獥 敮⁷敒䕧灸 帧牡慥吠灹㵥愢敲彡尨睜⤫✢⤠⤠ †††映牯⠠慶‽㬰椠㰠愠敲乡摯獥氮湥瑧㭨椠⬫††††††††††慶‽慰獲䥥瑮木瑥潃灭瑵摥瑓汹⡥牡慥潎敤孳嵩⸩楷瑤⥨††††††晩⠠愨㸠‽〳⤰☠…愨㰠‽〴⤰††††††††††††††牰灯牥潎敤㴠愠敲乡摯獥楛㭝 †††††††戠敲歡††††††††††ਊ††††慶牰灯牥祴慎敭㴠朠瑥敍慴潃瑮湥⡴瀢潲数瑲≹ 籼映污敳††††晩 獩牔汥楬⁸☦⠠牰灯牥潎敤 ††††††††††牳‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴晩慲敭栮浴❬††††††牰灯牥潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥ⱥ瀠潲数乲摯楦獲䍴楨摬㬩 †††素 †††攠獬晩 獩牔汥楬⁸☦℠ 牰灯牥潎敤⤠⤠⼠ 汓灡琠敨愠癥湥桴畯桧⁴桴牥獩渠污捯瑡摥猠潬ੴ††††††††††牳‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴晩慲敭栮浴❬††††††瑳汹獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠潮敮㬧 †††††瘠牡挠楤⁶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨楤❶㬩 †††††挠楤瑳汹‽眢摩桴㌺〰硰活牡楧㩮〱硰愠瑵㭯㬢 †††††挠楤灡数摮桃汩⡤攠⤠††††††湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨楤ⱶ戠氮獡䍴楨摬㬩 †††素 †††攠獬晩 椡䉳潬敫䉤䑹浯楡⡮氠捯瑡潩牨晥⤠⤠ †††笠 †††††瘠牡椠橮⁆‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨晩慲敭⤧††††††湩䙪献祴敬戮牯敤‽〧㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹慭杲湩㴠〠††††††湩䙪献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫††††††湩䙪献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽渧湯❥††††††湩䙪献祴敬栮楥桧⁴‽㈧㐵硰㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹慰摤湩‽㬰 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹楷瑤‽㌧〰硰㬧 †††††椠橮⹆牳‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴晩慲敭栮浴❬ †††††椠⡦戠☠… 椡味敲汬硩簠⁼ 祴数景椠味敲汬硩㴠‽產摮晥湩摥• ⼯䄠汬漠桴牥琠楲潰牰灯ੳ††††††††††††††慶摣癩㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴搧癩⤧††††††††摣癩献祴敬㴠∠楷瑤㩨〳瀰㭸慭杲湩ㄺ瀰⁸畡潴∻††††††††摣癩愮灰湥䍤楨摬 湩䙪⤠††††††††湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨楤ⱶ戠氮獡䍴楨摬㬩 †††††素ਠ†††††⡽搠捯浵湥獩牔汥楬⁸⤩㰊猯牣灩㹴ਊ搼癩椠㵤琢形潣瑮楡敮≲猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮⌺䙄䍄䙃※潢摲牥戭瑯潴㩭瀱⁸潳楬㌣㌹㌹㬹瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹㤹ℹ浩潰瑲湡≴ਾℼⴭ潦浲渠浡㵥猢慥捲≨漠卮扵業㵴爢瑥牵敳牡档瑩⤨•摩✽敨摡牥獟慥捲❨㸠㰊湩異⁴祴数∽整瑸•汰捡桥汯敤㵲匢慥捲≨猠穩㵥〳渠浡㵥猢慥捲㉨•慶畬㵥∢ਾ椼灮瑵琠灹㵥戢瑵潴≮瘠污敵∽潇∡漠䍮楬正∽敳牡档瑩⤨㸢㰊是牯㹭㰊瑳汹㹥昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲††楷瑤㩨㤠㘱硰††慭杲湩›‰畡潴㠠硰††潰楳楴湯›敲慬楴敶ਊ潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵笠 †栠楥桧㩴㐠瀰㭸 †映湯楳敺›㐱硰††楬敮栭楥桧㩴㐠瀰㭸 †瀠摡楤杮›‰瀸㭸 †戠硯猭穩湩㩧戠牯敤潢㭸 †戠捡杫潲湵㩤⌠㑆㉆㥅††潢摲牥›瀱⁸潳楬䈣䉂䈸㬸 †琠慲獮瑩潩㩮戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬〳洰慥敳漭瑵ਬ††††††††潣潬〳洰慥敳昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢笠 †眠摩桴›〱┰潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥琢硥≴㩝潦畣††潢摲牥挭汯牯›䄣䐲㔰㬴 †戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬㩲⌠晦㭦 †戠硯猭慨潤㩷〠〠硰ㄠ瀲⁸㐭硰⌠㉁い㐵ਊ昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽畢瑴湯崢笠 †瀠獯瑩潩㩮愠獢汯瑵㭥 †琠灯›瀱㭸 †爠杩瑨›瀱㭸 †漠慰楣祴›㬱 †戠捡杫潲湵㩤⌠䙄䍄䙃††潣潬㩲⌠㘴㜳㐳††楷瑤㩨ㄠ㔲硰††畣獲牯›潰湩整㭲 †栠楥桧㩴㌠瀸㭸 †戠牯敤㩲渠湯㭥紊昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢昺捯獵縠椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戧瑵潴❮㩝潨敶Ⱳ昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数✽畢瑴湯崧栺癯牥笠 †戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬㩲⌠㕁䕃㘵††潣潬㩲⌠晦㭦紊昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢昺捯獵縠椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戧瑵潴❮⁝††慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯›㔣䄲䑅㭆 †挠汯牯›昣晦㰊猯祴敬ਾ㰊捳楲瑰ਾ畦据楴湯猠慥捲楨⡴笩 †ਠ††⼯搠瑥牥業敮攠癮物湯敭瑮ਠ††慶敳牡档敟癮ਠ††晩⠠祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶湩敤佸⡦⸢摰∮ ‾ㄭ †††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档ㄵ瀮祬潣潣⽭⽡㬧 †素攠獬晩⠠祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶湩敤佸⡦⸢慱∮ ‾ㄭ †††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档ㄵ焮祬潣潣⽭⽡㬧 †素攠獬†††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档ㄵ氮捹獯挮浯愯✯††瘊牡猠慥捲彨整浲㴠攠据摯啥䥒潃灭湯湥⡴潤畣敭瑮献慥捲敳牡档⸲慶畬⥥瘊牡猠慥捲彨牵‽敳牡档敟癮猫慥捲彨整浲楷摮睯漮数⡮敳牡档畟汲㬩ਊ敲畴湲映污敳紊㰊猯牣灩㸭㰊瑳汹㹥 †⸠摡敃瑮牥汃獡筳慭杲湩〺愠瑵絯㰊猯祴敬ਾ搼癩椠㵤琢形摡•汣獡㵳愢䍤湥整䍲慬獳•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正椡灭牯慴瑮※癯牥汦睯栺摩敤㭮眠摩桴㤺㘱硰∻ਾ愼栠敲㵦栢瑴㩰⼯摡牴捡業楮瑳牥慩㕬挮浯振楬正敮⽷愿㘽㜳㤳∴琠瑩敬∽畢汩潹牵漠湷眠扥楳整愠⁴牔灩摯挮浯•瑳汹㵥昢潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰※潢摲牥〺㸢㰊浩牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯祬氮杹潣⽭祬琯印瑩⽥浩条獥是敲䅥㉤樮杰•污㵴䴢歡潹牵漠湷映敲敷獢瑩湯吠楲潰潣≭猠祴敬∽潢摲牥〺※楤灳慬㩹汢捯≫⼠ਾ⼼㹡ਠ搼癩椠㵤愢彤潣瑮楡敮≲猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴映潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴㜺㠲硰∠ਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴搾捯浵湥牷瑩⡥祬潣彳摡❛敬摡牥潢牡❤⥝㰻猯牣灩㹴㰊搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴搾捯浵湥牷瑩⡥祬潣彳摡❛汳摩牥崧㬩⼼捳楲瑰‾ℼⴭ愠摤摥㜠㈯′ⴭਾ搼癩椠㵤䘢潯整䅲≤猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮⌺䙄䍄䙃※潢摲牥琭灯ㄺ硰猠汯摩⌠㤳㤳㤳※汣慥㩲潢桴※楤灳慬㩹潮敮※楷瑤㩨〱┰椡灭牯慴瑮※潰楳楴湯爺汥瑡癩㭥稠椭摮硥㤺㤹㤹ℹ浩潰瑲湡㭴栠楥桧㩴〹硰椡灭牯慴瑮㸢ਠ搼癩挠慬獳∽摡敃瑮牥汃獡≳猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※楷瑤㩨ㄹ瀶㭸㸢㰊牨晥∽瑨灴⼺愯瑤慲正洮湩獩整楲污⸵潣⽭汣捩湫睥㼯㵡㌶㌷㐹•楴汴㵥戢極摬礠畯睯敷獢瑩瑡吠楲潰潣≭猠祴敬∽汦慯㩴敬瑦※楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰※潢摲牥〺㸢㰊浩牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯祬氮杹潣⽭祬琯印瑩⽥浩条獥是敲䅥㉤樮杰•污㵴䴢歡潹牵漠湷映敲敷獢瑩湯吠楲潰潣≭猠祴敬∽潢摲牥〺※楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫∠⼠ਾ⼼㹡ਠ搼癩椠㵤昢潯整䅲彤潣瑮楡敮≲猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴映潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴㜺㠲硰㸢㰊晩慲敭椠㵤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁䙩慲敭•瑳汹㵥戢牯敤㩲㬰搠獩汰祡戺潬正※汦慯㩴敬瑦※敨杩瑨㤺瀶㭸漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※慰摤湩㩧㬰眠摩桴㜺〵硰㸢⼼晩慲敭ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶ਊ