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The "Suffering Servant" of ch.53 of Y'shayahu
by Prof. Mordochai ben-Tziyyon, Universitah Ha'ivrit, Y'rushalayim
|הִנֵּ֥ה יַשְׂכִּ֖יל עַבְדִּ֑י יָרוּ֧ם וְנִשָּׂ֛א וְגָבַ֖הּ מְאֹֽד׃|
|52:13. My "servant" will succeed in becoming uplifted, and will become exalted and very powerful.|
|My servant - Yisraél.|
|כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר שָֽׁמְמ֤וּ עָלֶ֨יךָ֙ רַבִּ֔ים כֵּֽן־מִשְׁחַ֥ת מֵאִ֖ישׁ מַרְאֵ֑הוּ וְתֹֽאֲר֖וֹ מִבְּנֵ֥י אָדָֽם׃|
|52:14. Just as many used to marvel about you and say "Their appearance is too hideous to be human",|
|"Their appearance is too hideous to be human" - Hebrews have frequently been carricatured as hideously ugly: deformed, swarthy and with exaggerated hooked noses.|
|כֵּ֤ן יַזֶּה֙ גּוֹיִ֣ם רַבִּ֔ים עָלָ֛יו יִקְפְּצ֥וּ מְלָכִ֖ים פִּיהֶ֑ם כִּ֠י אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹֽא־סֻפַּ֤ר לָהֶם֙ רָא֔וּ וַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־שָֽׁמְע֖וּ הִתְבּוֹנָֽנוּ׃|
|52:15. so will He [i.e. God] scatter many nations − their kings will be speechless because [suddenly] they will see things that were never talked about and will realise things that were never heard of [before]!|
|He will scatter - Hebrew יַזֶּה yazzeh, the same verb as that used for the "splashing" of the blood of the atonement sacrifices by the Chief Kohén in Vayikra 16:14.|
will be speechless - literally "will shut their mouths". They will be so astonished that they will not know what to say.
things that were never talked about... that were never heard of [before] - a nation so universally despised and derided rising to such eminence.
|מִ֥י הֶֽאֱמִ֖ין לִשְׁמֻֽעָתֵ֑נוּ וּזְר֥וֹעַ יְיָ֖ עַל־מִ֥י נִגְלָֽתָה׃|
|53:1. Who would have believed our report [they will say,] about the ones that Adonai's Arm was revealed to?|
|"our report" - who can believe what we used to say about Yisraél?|
"Adonai's Arm" - a reference to the Exodus (see Sh'mot 6:6, D'varim 4:34, 5:15, 26:8, M'lachim Beit 17:36 and many similar references).
|וַיַּ֨עַל כַּיּוֹנֵ֜ק לְפָנָ֗יו וְכַשֹּׁ֨רֶשׁ֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ צִיָּ֔ה לֹא־תֹ֥אַר ל֖וֹ וְלֹ֣א הָדָ֑ר וְנִרְאֵ֥הוּ וְלֹֽא־מַרְאֶ֖ה וְנֶחְמְדֵֽהוּ׃|
|53:2. For they came up before Him like a suckling babe, like a root out of dry ground; they had neither appearance nor splendour; and, when we saw how unattractive they were, [we said] "Why should we desire them?"|
|"they" - literally "he", i.e. God's "servant", Yisraél|
"came up" - out of Egypt, the usual Scriptural terminology for Yisraél's departure from Egypt, as in Sh'mot 13:18 and many other places. Leaving Egypt is described as "going up" for two reasons: firstly, the Goshen region where Yisraél had been living (in the Nile Delta) is very low-lying, so the people "went up" in a very literal sense when they left; and secondly, because Egypt was a God-less place so that Yisraél also "went up" in a spiritual sense when they left there.
"before Him" - almost immediately after leaving Egypt, Yisraél appeared before God at Mount Ḥorev in the Sinai Desert.
"like a suckling babe" - a similar metaphor for the "newly-born" Yisraél nation to that used by Hoshé'a when he says "When Yisraél was a lad, I loved him..." (11:1).
"they had neither appearance nor splendour" - the newly-liberated slaves were ungroomed and unkempt.
|נִבְזֶה֙ וַֽחֲדַ֣ל אִישִׁ֔ים אִ֥ישׁ מַכְאֹב֖וֹת וִיד֣וּעַ חֹ֑לִי וּכְמַסְתֵּ֤ר פָּנִים֙ מִמֶּ֔נּוּ נִבְזֶ֖ה וְלֹ֥א חֲשַׁבְנֻֽהוּ׃|
|53:3. They were despised and isolated from humanity − men of pains, accustomed to illness; they were despised like those that people turn their faces away from and we considered them worthless.|
|Can anyone deny that all these things have been said about Yisraél in the past (and are still being said about us today by some)?|
|אָכֵ֤ן חֳלָיֵ֨נוּ֙ ה֣וּא נָשָׂ֔א וּמַכְאֹבֵ֖ינוּ סְבָלָ֑ם וַֽאֲנַ֣חְנוּ חֲשַׁבְנֻ֔הוּ נָג֛וּעַ מֻכֵּ֥ה אֱלֹהִ֖ים וּמְעֻנֶּֽה׃|
|53:4. Indeed, they tolerated our ills and our pains − they bore them; but [we convinced ourselves that] they were being plagued, stricken by God and afflicted.|
|"they tolerated our ills and bore our pains" - they (Yisraél) were forced to put up with all the "ills" and "pains" that we brought upon them.|
"we convinced ourselves" - the "gentile kings" are too embarassed to reveal their own foolishness by actually articulating the words "we convinced ourselves", but they are nonetheless implied − indeed, verses 2 through 5 all end with a statement of what "we" said or thought.
|וְהוּא֙ מְחֹלָ֣ל מִפְּשָׁעֵ֔ינוּ מְדֻכָּ֖א מֵֽעֲוֺֽנֹתֵ֑ינוּ מוּסַ֤ר שְׁלוֹמֵ֨נוּ֙ עָלָ֔יו וּבַֽחֲבֻֽרָת֖וֹ נִרְפָּא־לָֽנוּ׃|
|53:5. They were pained because of our rebellious sins and crushed because of our iniquities; [we thought that] punishing them would benefit ourselves, and through their wounds we would be healed.|
|"they were pained because of our rebellious sins, crushed because of our iniquities" - we caused them (Yisraél) much pain and suffering by our own rebellious sinning.|
"[we thought that] punishing them..." - see commentary on verse 4 (s.v. "we convinced ourselves").
|כֻּלָּ֨נוּ֙ כַּצֹּ֣אן תָּעִ֔ינוּ אִ֥ישׁ לְדַרְכּ֖וֹ פָּנִ֑ינוּ וַֽייָ֙ הִפְגִּ֣יעַ בּ֔וֹ אֵ֖ת עֲוֺ֥ן כֻּלָּֽנוּ׃|
|53:6. We strayed like sheep, each one of us turned in his own direction, but Adonai accepted their prayers for the iniquity of all of us.|
|"We strayed like sheep..." - the "gentile kings" frankly confess their own guilt.|
"but Adonai accepted their prayers" - even though we persecuted Yisraél grievously and unjustly, they nevertheless prayed on our behalf and we were forgiven by God (see also verse 12).
|נִגַּ֨שׂ וְה֣וּא נַֽעֲנֶה֘ וְלֹ֣א יִפְתַּח־פִּיו֒ כַּשֶּׂה֙ לַטֶּ֣בַח יוּבָ֔ל וּכְרָחֵ֕ל לִפְנֵ֥י גֹֽזְזֶ֖יהָ נֶֽאֱלָ֑מָה וְלֹ֥א יִפְתַּ֖ח פִּֽיו׃|
|53:7. They were persecuted and afflicted, but they did not protest; they would be prepared like a seh for a feast or like a raḥel that is silent before her shearers; they would not open their mouths.|
|seh (Hebrew שֶׂה)—a young kid or lamb (see Sh'mot 12:5)|
raḥel (Hebrew רָחֵל)—a "ewe", i.e. an adult female sheep.
"they would be prepared like a seh for a feast - how tragically, and how literally, was this fulfilled during the numerous autos da fé of the centuries-long christian "Inquisitions" and at the Nazi death-camps of the 1930s and 1940s!
|מֵעֹ֤צֶר וּמִמִּשְׁפָּט֙ לֻקָּ֔ח וְאֶת־דּוֹר֖וֹ מִ֣י יְשׂוֹחֵ֑חַ כִּ֤י נִגְזַר֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ חַיִּ֔ים מִפֶּ֥שַׁע עַמִּ֖י נֶ֥גַע לָֽמוֹ׃|
|53:8. Now that they have been released from detention and judgement, who could have imagined such a generation? for they were removed far from the land where they lived, and a plague came upon them through the transgression of my people.|
|"Now that they have been released..." - when Yisraél's long exile is finally ended, the gentiles will marvel that we could have survived such a long absence (sinfully inflicted upon us by them) from our own land.|
"the land where they lived" - literally, "the land of [their] life".
"a plague" - the term "plague" (Hebrew נֶֽגַע, nega') is used in the Scriptures to denote all forms of suffering.
"came upon them" - on this one occasion, the Hebrew text uses the plural form "them" (לָֽמוֹ lamo is a poetic synonym for לָהֶם lahem, "to them").
|וַיִּתֵּ֤ן אֶת־רְשָׁעִים֙ קִבְר֔וֹ וְאֶת־עָשִׁ֖יר בְּמֹתָ֑יו עַ֚ל לֹֽא־חָמָ֣ס עָשָׂ֔ה וְלֹ֥א מִרְמָ֖ה בְּפִֽיו׃|
|53:9. They submitted to the grave with the wicked and joined with the wealthy in their deaths, even though they had committed no crime and there was no deceit in their mouths.|
|"They submitted to the grave with the wicked..." - treated like common criminals, they submitted to the Divine Will and accepted God's judgement upon them.|
"even though they had committed no crime..." - this does not mean that every Hebrew who was ever persecuted was totally flawless; guilt and innocence are relative concepts and even if they had been guilty of minor infringements they did not deserve the inhuman treatment to which they were subjected.
It is common for christians to think of the terms "righteous" and "wicked" as absolutes, referring to people who are either totally "good" or thoroughly "evil" − but life is not that black-and-white. No man is ever 100% "good" OR 100% "evil" − all of us are somewhere in between. The Hebrew words tzaddik ("righteous") and rasha ("wicked") are used as relative terms as can be seen, for example, from D'varim 25:1 − "If there is a dispute between two men and they bring it before a Court and you judge them, then you shall rule in favour of the 'tzaddik' and against the 'rasha'...".
|וַֽייָ֞ חָפֵ֤ץ דַּכְּאוֹ֙ הֶֽחֱלִ֔י אִם־תָּשִׂ֤ים אָשָׁם֙ נַפְשׁ֔וֹ יִרְאֶ֥ה זֶ֖רַע יַֽאֲרִ֣יךְ יָמִ֑ים וְחֵ֥פֶץ יְיָ֖ בְּיָד֥וֹ יִצְלָֽח׃|
|53:10. It was Adonai who desired to persecute them − He plagued them; their souls needed only to acknowledge their guilt and then they would see their offspring [live] and have long life, and that which Adonai desires would prosper in their hands.|
|"It was Adonai who desired to persecute them" - The persecution inflicted upon Yisraél by the gentile nations was in fact God's intention... those gentile nations were actually acting as God's agents, even though they did not realise it; they were being used by Him to punish us for our rebellion and ultimately to bring us back to serving Him, so we would be worthy to fulfil our rôle in leading the World to His service.|
"He plagued them" - It was God Himself who caused our persecution by the gentile nations.
"their souls needed only to acknowledge their guilt..." - The reason He caused us to be persecuted was to make us repent and acknowledge our guilt.
"that which Adonai desires" - the final rehabilitation of Yisraél and the emergence of the King-Messiah who will usher in the final stage of Mankind's evolution when all will live in peace, serving God and Him alone.
|מֵֽעֲמַ֤ל נַפְשׁוֹ֙ יִרְאֶ֣ה יִשְׂבָּ֔ע בְּדַעְתּ֗וֹ יַצְדִּ֥יק צַדִּ֛יק עַבְדִּ֖י לָֽרַבִּ֑ים וַעֲוֺֽנֹתָ֖ם ה֥וּא יִסְבֹּֽל׃|
|53:11. In their souls' turmoil they will realise [the purpose] and accept [it]; the righteous among My "servant" will be vindicated publicly by their knowledge, because they had to tolerate their wrongdoings.|
|"In their souls' turmoil" - Throughout the centuries of Yisraél's suffering at the hands of the gentile nations.|
"they will realise [the purpose] and they will accept [it]" - Yisraél will come to understand why God allowed so much suffering to come upon us and will accept His judgement.
"the righteous among My 'servant' will be vindicated publicly by their knowledge" - the torah-scholars will eventually receive the respect and recognition they deserve.
"because they" (Yisraél) "had to tolerate their" (the gentiles') "wrongdoings" (against us).
|לָכֵ֞ן אֲחַלֶּק־ל֣וֹ בָֽרַבִּ֗ים וְאֶת־עֲצוּמִים֘ יְחַלֵּ֣ק שָׁלָל֒ תַּ֗חַת אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֶֽעֱרָ֤ה לַמָּ֨וֶת֙ נַפְשׁ֔וֹ וְאֶת־פֹּֽשְׁעִ֖ים נִמְנָ֑ה וְהוּא֙ חֵֽטְא־רַבִּ֣ים נָשָׂ֔א וְלַפֹּֽשְׁעִ֖ים יַפְגִּֽיעַ׃|
|53:12. Therefore I will assign to them an allocation among the many and they will share out the powerful as plunder, because they gave up their souls in death and were considered as outcasts, and even when suffering the sins of the many they were praying for those wicked ones.|
|"I will assign to them an allocation among the many" - God will eventually raise Yisraél to the full status of an independent nation in the World's eyes.|
"they will share out the powerful as plunder" - ultimately Yisraél will triumph over its enemies.
"they gave up their souls in death and were considered as outcasts" - i.e. submitted to persecution by their enemies.
"even when suffering the sins of the many they were praying for those wicked ones" - Hebrews have always prayed for the governments and people of whatever country they were living in, even while they were being persecuted in those lands, as the prophet Yirm'yahu, speaking in God's Name, had advised the exiled deportees in Babylonia: וְדִרְשׁ֞וּ אֶת־שְׁל֣וֹם הָעִ֗יר אֲשֶׁ֨ר הִגְלֵ֤יתִי אֶתְכֶם֙ שָׁ֔מָּה וְהִתְפַּֽלְל֥וּ בַֽעֲדָ֖הּ אֶל־יְיָ֑ כִּ֣י בִשְׁלוֹמָ֔הּ יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶ֖ם שָׁלֽוֹם "Work for the welfare of the city to which I have exiled you and pray to God for it, because your own well-being is dependent on its well-being" (Yirm'yahu 29:7).
Compare verse 6 above.
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††††慶楯ⁱ‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨捳楲瑰⤧※楯祴数㴠✠整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴※楯獡湹‽牴敵††††楯牳‽潤畣敭瑮氮捯瑡潩牰瑯捯汯⬠✠⼯硰漮湷牥煩渮瑥猯慴⽳⽳祬潣湳樮❳††††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥猧牣灩❴嬩崰※慰敲瑮潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥楯ⱱ猠㬩 †素⠩㬩紊ਊਊ⼯⼯⼯ 潇杯敬䄠慮祬楴獣⼠⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ਯ慶束煡㴠张慧ⁱ籼嬠㭝弊慧異桳嬨弧敳䅴捣畯瑮Ⱗ✠䅕㈭㐱㈰㤶ⴵ㤱崧㬩弊慧異桳嬨弧敳䑴浯楡乮浡❥琧楲潰潣❭⥝束煡瀮獵⡨❛獟瑥畃瑳浯慖❲ⰱ✠敭扭牥湟浡❥洧牯潤档楡Ⱗ㌠⥝束煡瀮獵⡨❛瑟慲正慐敧楶睥崧㬩⠊畦据楴湯⤨笠 †瘠牡朠‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨捳楲瑰⤧※慧琮灹‽琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬧朠獡湹‽牴敵††慧献捲㴠⠠栧瑴獰✺㴠‽潤畣敭瑮氮捯瑡潩牰瑯捯汯㼠✠瑨灴㩳⼯獳❬㨠✠瑨灴⼺眯睷⤧⬠✠朮潯汧ⵥ湡污瑹捩潣⽭慧樮❳††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥猧牣灩❴嬩崰※慰敲瑮潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥慧⥳⥽⤨ਊ⼯⼯⼯ 祌潣湉瑩慩楬慺楴湯⼠⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ਯ畦据楴湯朠瑥敒敦牲牥⤨笠 †⼠ 敒摡桴敲敦牲牥漠瑵漠桴潣歯敩晩愠慶汩扡敬ਮ††慶污㵬琠楨潤畣敭瑮挮潯楫㭥 †椠愨汬㴽✠⤧爠瑥牵慦獬㭥 †瘠牡挠潯楫彥慮敭㴠✠䕒䕆剒剅✽††慶瑳牡⁴‽污慬瑳湉敤佸⡦潣歯敩湟浡⥥††晩⠠瑳牡⁴㴽ⴠ⤱爠瑥牵慦獬㭥†⼯爠晥牥敲剕⁌潮⁴潦湵 †猠慴瑲⬠‽潣歯敩湟浡敬杮桴††慶湥‽污湩敤佸⡦㬧Ⱗ猠慴瑲㬩 †椠攨摮㴠‽ㄭ 湥‽污敬杮桴††敲畴湲愠汬献扵瑳楲杮猨慴瑲湥⥤畦据楴湯朠瑥畑牥⡹ ††⼯䜠瑥琠敨爠晥牥敲敳牡档焠敵祲映潲潣歯敩晩愠慶汩扡敬ਮ††慶晲‽敧剴晥牥敲⡲㬩 †椠爨牦㴠‽✧ 敲畴湲映污敳††慶ⁱ‽硥牴捡兴敵祲爨牦礧桡潯挮浯Ⱗ✠㵰⤧††晩⠠⥱爠瑥牵㭱 †焠㴠攠瑸慲瑣畑牥⡹晲Ⱳ✠Ⱗ✠㵱⤧††敲畴湲焠㼠焠㨠∠㬢紊昊湵瑣潩硥牴捡兴敵祲昨汵ⱬ猠瑩ⱥ焠灟牡浡 ††慶瑳牡⁴‽畦汬氮獡䥴摮硥晏猨瑩⥥††晩⠠瑳牡⁴㴽ⴠ⤱爠瑥牵慦獬㭥 †猠慴瑲㴠映汵慬瑳湉敤佸⡦影慰慲⥭††晩⠠瑳牡⁴㴽ⴠ⤱爠瑥牵慦獬㭥 †猠慴瑲⬠‽影慰慲敬杮桴††慶湥‽畦汬椮摮硥晏✨✦瑳牡⥴††晩⠠湥㴽ⴠ⤱攠摮㴠映汵敬杮桴††敲畴湲甠敮捳灡⡥畦汬献扵瑳楲杮猨慴瑲湥⥤⸩灳楬⡴•⤢樮楯⡮⬢⤢昊湵瑣潩敧敮慲整版晥愨慴Ⱨ琠浥汰瑡⥥††瑡条栮敲㵦整灭慬整爮灥慬散✨䵟啙䱒❟楷摮睯氮捯瑡潩牨晥爮灥慬散✨瑨灴⼺✯✧⤩爮灥慬散✨䵟呙呉䕌❟䌧敨正㈥漰瑵㈥琰楨╳〲牔灩摯㈥䴰浥敢╲〲楳整✡㬩ਠਊ慶祬潣彳摡㴠䄠牲祡⤨慶祬潣彳湯潬摡瑟浩牥瘊牡挠彭潲敬㴠∠楬敶㬢瘊牡挠彭潨瑳㴠∠牴灩摯氮捹獯挮浯㬢瘊牡挠彭慴楸‽⼢敭扭牥浥敢摤摥㬢瘊牡琠楲潰彤敭扭牥湟浡‽洢牯潤档楡㬢瘊牡琠楲潰彤敭扭牥灟条‽洢牯潤档楡礯桳祡桡㕵琳⸲瑨汭㬢瘊牡琠楲潰彤慲楴杮彳慨桳㴠∠㌱㤶㐵㌸㠸㌺㘰㝣晣㐱摢㤵㌷㠷㠶づ㈸㉤ㄶ㥣㍡≥瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤慣整潧祲㴠笠搢潭≺∺潳楣瑥屹栯獩潴祲Ⱒ漢瑮牡敧≴∺䌦呁昽浡汩╹〲湡╤〲楬敦瑳汹獥Ⱒ昢湩彤桷瑡㨢匢畴祤吠敨䈠扩敬索瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤敲潭整慟摤‽㜢⸲㐴㐮⸸㈱∲慶祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶‽眢睷琮楲潰祬潣潣≭慶祬潣彳摡瑟慲正獟慭汬㴠∠瑨灴⼺洯浥敢獲琮楲潰潣⽭摡⽭浩⽧潣浭湯漯彴浳污晬慲敭朮晩爿湡㵤㠴㐴㐴㬢瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤牴捡彫敳癲摥㴠∠瑨灴⼺洯浥敢獲琮楲潰潣⽭摡⽭浩⽧潣浭湯漯彴摡敳癲摥朮晩爿湡㵤㠴㐴㐴㬢瘊牡氠捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⁹‽敧兴敵祲⤨ਊ⼯⼯⼯䌠楲整⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ਯ慶瑣彯潣普㴠笠愠琺畲ⱥ椠›㈢㐹Ⱒ挠∺浩≧睫›∢素㬠⠊畦据楴湯⠠笩 †瘠牡挠㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猢牣灩≴㬩挠琮灹‽琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬢挠愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥 †挠献捲㴠∠瑨灴⼺洯浥敢獲琮楲潰潣⽭摡⽭慰瑲敮⽲牣瑩潥江彤睫樮≳††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥戢摯≹嬩崰※灡数摮桃汩⡤⥣⥽⤨※ਊ⼼捳楲瑰ਾ㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰•牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯捳楲瑰祬潣潣⽭慣浴湡椯楮獪㸢⼼捳楲瑰ਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴‾ਊ昨湵瑣潩⡮獩⥖笠 †椠ℨ獩⥖笠 †††爠瑥牵㭮 †素ਊ††⼯桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⁹‽祬潣彳敧彴敳牡档牟晥牥敲⡲㬩 †瘠牡愠䵤牧㴠渠睥䄠䵤湡条牥⤨††慶祬潣彳牰摯獟瑥㴠愠䵤牧挮潨獯健潲畤瑣敓⡴㬩 †瘠牡猠潬獴㴠嬠氢慥敤扲慯摲Ⱒ∠敬摡牥潢牡㉤Ⱒ∠潴汯慢彲浩条≥琢潯扬牡瑟硥≴猢慭汬潢≸琢灯灟潲潭Ⱒ∠潦瑯牥∲㭝 †瘠牡愠䍤瑡㴠琠楨祬潣彳摡损瑡来牯㭹 †愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭瀧条❥愨䍤瑡☠…摡慃浤穯 ‿摡慃浤穯㨠✠敭扭牥⤧ †椠琨楨祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲 ††††摡杍敳䙴牯散偤牡浡∨敫睹牯≤桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⥹††⁽ †攠獬晩⠠摡慃⁴☦愠䍤瑡昮湩彤桷瑡 ††††摡杍敳䙴牯散偤牡浡✨敫睹牯❤摡慃楦摮睟慨⥴†† †映牯⠠慶湩猠潬獴 ††††慶汳瑯㴠猠潬獴獛㭝 †††椠愨䵤牧椮即潬䅴慶汩扡敬猨潬⥴ ††††††桴獩氮捹獯慟孤汳瑯⁝‽摡杍敧却潬⡴汳瑯㬩 †††素 †素ਊ††摡杍敲摮牥效摡牥⤨††摡杍敲摮牥潆瑯牥⤨⡽昨湵瑣潩⡮ ††慶⁷‽ⰰ栠㴠〠業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬㴠㌠〰††晩⠠潴⁰㴽猠汥⥦笠 †††爠瑥牵牴敵†† †椠琨灹潥⡦楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤⥨㴠‽渧浵敢❲⤠笠 †††眠㴠眠湩潤湩敮坲摩桴††††‽楷摮睯椮湮牥效杩瑨††††汥敳椠搨捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⁴☦⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥䡴楥桧⥴ ††††⁷‽潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥坴摩桴††††‽潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥䡴楥桧㭴 †素 †攠獬晩⠠潤畣敭瑮戮摯⁹☦⠠潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮楗瑤籼搠捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥䡴楥桧⥴ ††††⁷‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨 †††栠㴠搠捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥䡴楥桧㭴 †素ਊ††敲畴湲⠠眨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤☠…栨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤㬩紊⤨⤩㬩 †ਠ楷摮睯漮汮慯‽畦据楴湯⤨笠 †瘠牡映㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉∨潆瑯牥摁⤢††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥戢摯≹嬩崰††灡数摮桃汩⡤⥦††瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戢潬正㬢 †搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉✨祬潣䙳潯整䅲楤牆浡❥⸩牳‽⼧摡⽭摡是潯整䅲晩慲敭栮浴❬ਊ††⼯䐠䵏䤠橮捥楴湯䄠††昨湵瑣潩⡮獩牔汥楬⥸笠 †††瘠牡攠㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴椧牦浡❥㬩 †††攠献祴敬戮牯敤‽〧㬧 †††攠献祴敬洮牡楧‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫††††瑳汹獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠楲桧❴††††瑳汹敨杩瑨㴠✠㔲瀴❸††††瑳汹癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††攠献祴敬瀮摡楤杮㴠〠††††瑳汹楷瑤‽㌧〰硰㬧ਊ††††慶敧䍴浯敭瑮潎敤‽畦据楴湯爨来硥慐瑴牥⥮笠 †††††瘠牡渠摯獥㴠笠㭽 †††††瘠牡渠摯獥⁁‽嵛††††††慶牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳㴠嬠愧Ⱗ✠❣戧崧 †††††⠠畦据楴湯朠瑥潎敤味慨䡴癡䍥浯敭瑮⡳Ɱ瀠瑡整湲 ††††††††晩⠠慨䍳楨摬潎敤⡳⤩笠 †††††††††椠渨琮条慎敭㴠㴽✠䙉䅒䕍⤧笠 †††††††††††爠瑥牵慦獬㭥 †††††††††素 †††††††††映牯⠠慶‽㬰椠㰠渠挮楨摬潎敤敬杮桴※⭩⤫笠 †††††††††††椠⠨档汩乤摯獥楛潮敤祔数㴠㴽㠠 ☦⠠慰瑴牥整瑳渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯噥污敵⤩ ††††††††††††††慶牡慥慎敭㴠瀠瑡整湲攮數⡣档汩乤摯獥楛潮敤慖畬⥥ㅛ㭝 †††††††††††††渠摯獥慛敲乡浡嵥㴠渠††††††††††††††††††††††††汥敳椠渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯呥灹㴽‽⤱笠 †††††††††††††朠瑥潎敤味慨䡴癡䍥浯敭瑮⡳档汩乤摯獥楛ⱝ瀠瑡整湲㬩 †††††††††††素 †††††††††素 †††††††素 †††††素搨捯浵湥潢祤敲敧偸瑡整湲⤩ †††††映牯⠠慶湩瀠敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩⥴笠 †††††††椠渨摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩⥝笠 †††††††††椠渨摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯⥥笠 †††††††††††渠摯獥⹁異桳渨摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯⥥†††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††爠瑥牵潮敤䅳†††† †††瘠牡瀠潲数乲摯‽畮汬††††慶牡慥潎敤‽敧䍴浯敭瑮潎敤⡳敮⁷敒䕧灸✨慞敲祔数∽牡慥⡟屜⭷∩⤧㬩 †††映牯⠠慶‽㬰椠㰠愠敲乡摯獥氮湥瑧㭨椠⬫ ††††††慶‽慰獲䥥瑮木瑥潃灭瑵摥瑓汹⡥牡慥潎敤孳嵩⸩楷瑤⥨††††††晩⠠愨㸠‽〳⤰☠…愨㰠‽〴⤰ ††††††††牰灯牥潎敤㴠愠敲乡摯獥楛㭝 †††††††戠敲歡†††††††††† †††椠⠨獩牔汥楬⥸☠…瀨潲数乲摯⥥ ††††††牳‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴晩慲敭栮浴❬††††††牰灯牥潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥ⱥ瀠潲数乲摯楦獲䍴楨摬㬩 †††素 †††攠獬††††††牳‽⼧摡⽭摡猯楬敤䅲晩慲敭栮浴❬††††††慶汳摩牥求捯‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氧獹楬敤摡汢捯牷灡数❲㬩 †††††瘠牡猠楬敤䡲汯敤‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氧獹楬敤摡汢捯潨摬牥⤧††††††慶汳摩牥汃獯‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氧獹楬敤摡汢捯汣獯❥㬩 †††††猠楬敤䉲潬正献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫ †††††猠楬敤䍲潬敳漮据楬正㴠映湵瑣潩⡮ ††††††††汳摩牥求捯慰敲瑮潎敤爮浥癯䍥楨摬猨楬敤䉲潬正㬩 †††††††爠瑥牵慦獬㭥 †††††素ਊ††††††慶晩慲敭湏潬摡㴠映湵瑣潩⡮ ††††††††敳呴浩潥瑵⠨畦据楴湯猠楬楩敤⤨笠 †††††††††瘠牡猠㴠⠠楷摮睯朮瑥潃灭瑵摥瑓汹⥥㼠瀠牡敳湉⡴敧䍴浯異整卤祴敬猨楬敤䡲汯敤⥲爮杩瑨 ›慰獲䥥瑮猨楬敤䡲汯敤畣牲湥却祴敬爮杩瑨㬩 †††††††††椠猨㰠‽⤰笠 †††††††††††猠楬敤䡲汯敤瑳汹楲桧⁴‽猨⬠㘠 瀧❸††††††††††††敳呴浩潥瑵猨楬楩敤〱㬩 †††††††††素 †††††††††攠獬††††††††††††汳摩牥潈摬牥献祴敬爮杩瑨㴠✠瀰❸††††††††††††汳摩牥汃獯瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戧潬正㬧 †††††††††素 †††††††素Ⱙㄠ〰⤰†††††† †††††椠攨愮瑴捡䕨敶瑮 ††††††††瑡慴档癅湥⡴漧汮慯❤晩慲敭湏潬摡㬩 †††††素 †††††攠獬††††††††摡䕤敶瑮楌瑳湥牥✨潬摡Ⱗ椠牦浡佥汮慯Ɽ映污敳㬩 †††††素ਊ††††††汳摩牥潈摬牥椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥ⱥ猠楬敤䡲汯敤楦獲䍴楨摬㬩 †††素 †素搨捯浵湥獩牔汥楬⥸㬩ਊਊ㰊猯牣灩㹴㰊瑳汹㹥ऊ戣摯⁹愮䍤湥整䍲慬獳浻牡楧㩮‰畡潴⼼瑳汹㹥ਊ搼癩椠㵤琢形潣瑮楡敮≲猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮⌺䙄䍄䙃※潢摲牥戭瑯潴㩭瀱⁸潳楬㌣㌹㌹㬹瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹㤹ℹ浩潰瑲湡≴ਾ††搼癩椠㵤琢形摡•汣獡㵳愢䍤湥整䍲慬獳•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正椡灭牯慴瑮※癯牥汦睯栺摩敤㭮眠摩桴㤺㘱硰∻ਾ††愼栠敲㵦栢瑴㩰⼯摡牴捡業楮瑳牥慩㕬挮浯振楬正敮⽷愿㘽㜳㤳∴琠瑩敬∽畢汩潹牵漠湷眠扥楳整愠⁴牔灩摯挮浯•瑳汹㵥昢潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰※潢摲牥〺㸢 †ठ椼杭猠捲∽瑨灴⼺氯祬潧挮浯氯⽹灴楓整椯慭敧⽳牦敥摁⸲灪≧愠瑬∽慍敫礠畯睯牦敥眠扥楳整漠牔灩摯挮浯•瑳汹㵥戢牯敤㩲㬰搠獩汰祡戺潬正•㸯 †㰠愯‾ †††㰠楤⁶摩∽摡损湯慴湩牥•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正椡灭牯慴瑮※汦慯㩴敬瑦※楷瑤㩨㈷瀸⁸㸢 †††㰠捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢潤畣敭瑮眮楲整氨捹獯慟孤氧慥敤扲慯摲崧㬩⼼捳楲瑰ਾ††††⼼楤㹶 †㰠搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶ਊℼⴭ⼠⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ⴠ㸭㰊楤⁶摩∽祬汳摩牥愭扤潬正眭慲灰牥•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡渺湯㭥栠楥桧㩴〳瀰㭸漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※潰楳楴湯愺獢汯瑵㭥爠杩瑨〺※潴㩰㔱瀰㭸眠摩桴㌺〲硰※湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹㤹※㸢㰊楤⁶摩∽祬汳摩牥愭扤潬正栭汯敤≲猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯⌺㠸㬸栠楥桧㩴㔲瀰㭸洠牡楧潢瑴浯㈺瀵㭸瀠摡楤杮㐺硰※潰楳楴湯愺獢汯瑵㭥爠杩瑨ⴺ㈳瀰㭸琠灯ㄺ瀰㭸眠摩桴㌺〰硰※㸢㰊摩∽祬汳摩牥愭扤潬正挭潬敳•牨晥∽∣猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯⌺㈲㬲戠瑯潴㩭ㄭ瀹㭸挠汯牯⌺晦㭦搠獩汰祡戺潬正※潦瑮ㄺ瀰⁸牁慩ⱬ䠠汥敶楴慣慓獮猭牥晩※慰摤湩㩧瀴㭸瀠獯瑩潩㩮扡潳畬整※楲桧㩴㬰琠硥敤潣慲楴湯渺湯㭥稠椭摮硥㤺㤹㤹㤹㤹∹䌾潬敳䄠㱤愯ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾਊ搼癩椠㵤䘢潯整䅲≤猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮⌺䙄䍄䙃※潢摲牥琭灯ㄺ硰猠汯摩⌠㤳㤳㤳※汣慥㩲潢桴※楤灳慬㩹潮敮※楷瑤㩨〱┰椡灭牯慴瑮※潰楳楴湯爺汥瑡癩㭥稠椭摮硥㤺㤹㤹ℹ浩潰瑲湡㭴栠楥桧㩴〹硰椡灭牯慴瑮㸢ਠ㰉楤⁶汣獡㵳愢䍤湥整䍲慬獳•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正椡灭牯慴瑮※癯牥汦睯栺摩敤㭮眠摩桴㤺㘱硰∻ਾ㰉牨晥∽瑨灴⼺愯瑤慲正洮湩獩整楲污⸵潣⽭汣捩湫睥㼯㵡㌶㌷㐹•楴汴㵥戢極摬礠畯睯敷獢瑩瑡吠楲潰潣≭猠祴敬∽汦慯㩴敬瑦※楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰※潢摲牥〺㸢 †ठ椼杭猠捲∽瑨灴⼺氯祬潧挮浯氯⽹灴楓整椯慭敧⽳牦敥摁⸲灪≧愠瑬∽慍敫礠畯睯牦敥眠扥楳整漠牔灩摯挮浯•瑳汹㵥戢牯敤㩲㬰搠獩汰祡戺潬正※•㸯 †㰠愯‾ †††㰠楤⁶摩∽潦瑯牥摁损湯慴湩牥•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正椡灭牯慴瑮※汦慯㩴敬瑦※楷瑤㩨㈷瀸≸ਾ††††椼牦浡摩∽祬潣䙳潯整䅲楤牆浡≥猠祴敬∽潢摲牥〺※楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫映潬瑡氺晥㭴栠楥桧㩴㘹硰※癯牥汦睯栺摩敤㭮瀠摡楤杮〺※楷瑤㩨㔷瀰≸㰾椯牦浡㹥 †††㰠ⴡ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴搾捯浵湥牷瑩⡥祬潣彳摡❛敬摡牥潢牡㉤崧㬩⼼捳楲瑰‾ⴭਾ††††⼼楤㹶ऊ⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ渼獯牣灩㹴 椼杭猠捲∽瑨灴⼺洯浥敢獲琮楲潰潣⽭摡⽭浩⽧潣浭湯漯彴潮捳楲瑰朮晩爿湡㵤㠴㐴㐴•污㵴∢眠摩桴∽∱栠楥桧㵴ㄢ•㸯 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