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The "Suffering Servant" in ch.53 of Y'shayahu
by Prof. Mordochai ben-Tziyyon, Universitah Ha'ivrit, Y'rushalayim
Chapter 53 of Y'shayahu's book, as it appears in "King James's Per-Version" and other christian "Per-Versions", certainly seems to be a clear and explicit prediction of the career, and most particularly the death, of the christian man-god. But of course it does: christians deliberately write their translations to make it look that way. Is this what the prophet was really talking about, though? Let's examine the chapter, translate it honestly, and find out.
The very first point to note is that the Hebrew prophet Y'shayahu − whose prophetic career spanned the reigns of four kings of Y'hudah: Azaryah-Uzziyahu (reigned 810-759BCE), Yotam (758-743BCE), Aḥaz (742-727BCE) and Ḥizkiyyahu (726-698BCE) − describes his book in its opening verse as "the Visions that he saw concerning Y'hudah and Y'rushalayim". He was not sent to speak to all the nations of the World, or even to all of Yisraél, although the Northern Kingdom was still in existence throughout most of his life − it was overthrown by the Assyrian king Sargon II (reigned 721-705BCE) in the 6th year of Ḥizkiyyahu's reign, i.e. 721BCE (M'lachim Beit 18:10).
By the way, there is no suggestion that Y'shayahu's prophetic career lasted from 810BCE (when Azaryah-Uzziyahu succeeded his father Amatz'yahu) until 698BCE (when Ḥizkiyyahu died), a period of 112 years; indeed, chapter 6 (which describes how he had volunteered himself to serve as God's Prophet and was first commissioned by God to bring His messages to the people of Y'hudah) begins "In the year of King Uzziyahu's death..." This begs the question: how, then, could he say in the opening verse of the book that he prophesied during Azaryah-Uzziyahu's reign? I have no idea how christians would respond to that (or if they would even care), but our understanding of it is that King Uzziyahu's "death" that Y'shayahu mentions in 6:1 refers not to the end of his life, but to the time when he was stricken with the "living death" of tzara'at (or Levitical "leprosy"), as described in Divrei Hayamim Beit 26:16-23. This is entirely consistent with Hebrew culture; compare Aharon's anguished plea to his brother Mosheh on behalf of their sister Miryam, who had just been stricken with the same affliction − "Please don't let her remain like a dead person..." (B'midbar 12:12). The passage in Divrei Hayamim gives no indication of when during Azaryah-Uzziyahu's 52-year reign this occurred, but M'lachim does−
|"Azaryah son of Amatz'yahu, king of Y'hudah was [already] reigning in King Yarov'am [the Second] of Yisraél's 27th year... when Adonai struck the king with the 'Plague'..." (M'lachim Beit 15:1-5)|
The Hebrew word נֶֽגַע nega' (a "plague") is often used in the T'nach as a synonym for the the contaminative disease properly called צָרַֽעַת tzara'at ("Levitical leprosy"), on account of D'varim 24:8 (הִשָּֽׁמֶר בְּנֶֽגַע הַצָּרַֽעַת "be careful about the plague of tzara'at...") and also because of the many instances where the two terms are used together in chapters 13 & 14 of Vayikra.
King Yarov'am II of Yisraél's 27th year (not counting the 3 years of his co-regency with his father Y'hoa'sh) was 783BCE, so that is when Y'shayahu's prophetic career actually started. According to Hebrew tradition, he was murdered by the wicked king M'nasheh, whose reign began in 697BCE − so his prophetic career lasted for at least 86 years.
The next point to be considered is where exactly the "Suffering Servant" passage begins. It does not start at the verse numbered 53:1. The illustration below shows chapter 53 as a scribe writes it in a scroll used for ceremonial readings on Shabbat and Holy Days; the "Suffering Servant" passage begins at the break in the third line of this extract (which is the verse numbered 52:13 in modern Bibles) and ends at the break in the last-but-one line (53:12):
It is widely recognised that Y'shayahu's book is really two books in one (chapters 1-39 and chapters 40-66) − some christians even assert that it's actually the work of two different authors, and call the second half by the name "Deutero-Isaiah" − so I need not cover that topic at any length here. Suffice it to say that the whole tone and language of the book changes at the start of chapter 40.
Whether the two halves of Y'shayahu were written by the same author or by two different authors, the writer in the second half was very fond of the term "God's servant", which he uses many times as a metaphor for Yisraél − that is to say, the whole Hebrew nation, not the individual named Yisraél, i.e. the patriarch Ya'akov. Here are some examples:
"But you, Yisraél − My servant Ya'akov, whom I chose − My beloved Avraham's zera...." (41:8)
"You are My witnesses," says Adonai, "My servant whom I chose...." (43:10) [the whole of chapter 43 is addressed explicitly to Yisraél in its opening verse]
"And now, listen, Ya'akov My servant, and Yisraél whom I have chosen...." (44:1)
"....Don't be afraid, My servant Ya'akov, Y'shurun whom I have chosen...." (44:2)
"Remember these things Ya'akov, Yisraél : you are My servant − I made you to be a servant to Me, Yisraél...." (44:21)
"For the sake of My servant Ya'akov − Yisraél My chosen one...." (45:4)
"Adonai has redeemed His servant Ya'akov!" (48:20)
"You are My servant, Yisraél...." (49:3)
Having used the metaphor "God's servant" so many times in chapters 41-49, and made it so abundantly clear that by it he meant the nation of Yisraél every time he used it, I guess the writer didn't feel he needed to spell it out yet again when he reached chapter 53; but of course he didn't reckon with christianity coming along and twisting his words. Maybe, if he had realised what was going to happen, he would have spelt it out again, in words of one syllable, in the "Suffering Servant" chapter. But in any event, the evidence of his many previous usages of the metaphor is there for all to see, and there is no indication that the intended meaning in the "Suffering Servant" chapter is any different. Can anyone deny that Yisraél has suffered through the ages? The consequence is that whenever the writer refers to the "servant" using the pronouns he, him or his, we must take into account when translating his poetic metaphors that he is talking about an entire nation rather than an individual person, so that it is actually more appropriate in a translation to use the plural forms they, them and their. Verse 53:8 confirms that this is indeed the correct reading, because it uses the plural form לָֽמוֹ lamo (a poetic variant of לָהֶם lahem, "to them"), so it cannot be the author's intention for the "servant" to be understood as an individual.
Many christians claim that "the Rabbis of the Talmud" believed the "Suffering Servant" to be a reference to "the Messiah" − but that assertion is a gross misrepresentation. While it is certainly true that a few of the Talmudic authorities were of that opinion, they were very much in the minority. The 11th century French Bible commentator Rashi (who lived a mere 500 years after the completion of the Babylonian Talmud) drew the majority of his explanations of the Scriptures from the Talmud, and he definitely did not see the "Suffering Servant" as a reference to "the Messiah". The simple truth is that Y'shayahu 53 is a "messianic prophecy", but it's about what will happen in King-Messiah's time, not about King-Messiah himself.
The first three verses of the chapter (i.e. the three that are transplanted to the end of chapter 52 in modern printed Bibles), which segue seamlessly into the beginning of "chapter 53" in the original Hebrew text, read as follows:
|My "servant" will succeed in becoming uplifted, and will become exalted and very powerful. Just as many used to marvel about you and say "Their appearance is too hideous to be human," so [in the future] many nations will exclaim the same thing − their kings will be speechless because [suddenly] they will see things that were never talked about and will realise things that were never heard of [before]! "Who would have believed our report?" [they will say.....]|
The "kings of the gentile nations" continue speaking throughout most of "chapter 53" (apart from the last two verses where God Himself responds to them): looking back on the events of the past from their vantage-point in the distant future, they confess their own guilt for the part the gentile nations have played in the unjust persecution that we, Yisraél, have endured at their hands throughout history − how we, God's "servant", have suffered because of the "sins" that they committed against us. It is the several remarks of that nature in this passage which, because they are deliberately mis-translated in christian "Per-Versions" with the preposition for cunningly substituted in place of through or because of, are mistaken by naïve and unsuspecting christians for references to their man-god who (or so they are taught) suffered and died "for" their "sins".
Click here for a full translation (with optional commentary) of the whole passage.
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†潧杯敬慴敤楦敮汓瑯✨㤯㤵㌶㤵⼶剔彉〳堰㔲弰晤❰㍛〰㔲崰搧癩札瑰愭ⵤ㐱〵〲ㄴ㤵㈱ⴶ✰⸩摡卤牥楶散木潯汧瑥条瀮扵摡⡳⤩†朠潯汧瑥条搮晥湩卥潬⡴⼧㔹㘹㔳㘹启䥒慟潢敶㝟㠲㥸弰晤❰㝛㠲〹ⱝ✠楤灧摡ㄭ㔴㈰㐰㔱ㄹ㘲ㄭ⤧愮摤敓癲捩⡥潧杯敬慴異慢獤⤨㬩 †潧杯敬慴敤楦敮汓瑯✨㤯㤵㌶㤵⼶剔彉敢潬彷㈷砸〹摟灦Ⱗ嬠㈷ⰸ㤠崰搧癩札瑰愭ⵤ㐱〵〲ㄴ㤵㈱ⴶ✲⸩摡卤牥楶散木潯汧瑥条瀮扵摡⡳⤩†朠潯汧瑥条瀮扵摡⡳⸩湥扡敬楓杮敬敒畱獥⡴㬩 †潧杯敬慴湥扡敬敓癲捩獥⤨素㬩㰊猯牣灩㹴ਊ㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢ਠ昨湵瑣潩⡮獩⥖笊 †椠⡦℠獩⁖††††††敲畴湲††††慶摡杍‽敮⁷摁慍慮敧⡲㬩 †瘠牡氠捹獯灟潲彤敳⁴‽摡杍档潯敳牐摯捵却瑥⤨††慶汳瑯‽≛敬摡牥潢牡≤氢慥敤扲慯摲∲琢潯扬牡楟慭敧Ⱒ∠潴汯慢彲整瑸Ⱒ∠浳污扬硯Ⱒ∠潴彰牰浯≯昢潯整㉲Ⱒ∠汳摩牥崢††慶摡慃⁴‽桴獩氮捹獯慟彤慣整潧祲††摡杍敳䙴牯散偤牡浡✨慰敧Ⱗ⠠摡慃⁴☦愠䍤瑡搮潭⥺㼠愠䍤瑡搮潭⁺›洧浥敢❲㬩 †椠琨楨祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲††††††摡杍敳䙴牯散偤牡浡∨敫睹牯≤桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⥹††⁽ †攠獬晩愨䍤瑡☠…摡慃楦摮睟慨⥴ †笠 †††愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭欧祥潷摲Ⱗ愠䍤瑡昮湩彤桷瑡㬩 †素 †ਠ††潦瘨牡猠椠汳瑯⥳ †笠 †††瘠牡猠潬⁴‽汳瑯孳嵳††††晩⠠摡杍獩汓瑯癁楡慬汢⡥汳瑯⤩ †††笠 †††††琠楨祬潣彳摡獛潬嵴㴠愠䵤牧朮瑥汓瑯猨潬⥴†††††† †愠䵤牧爮湥敤䡲慥敤⡲㬩 †愠䵤牧爮湥敤䙲潯整⡲㬩紊⠨畦据楴湯⤨笠ਊ慶⁷‽ⰰ栠㴠〠業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬㴠㌠〰椊琨灯㴠‽敳晬††敲畴湲琠畲㭥紊椊琨灹潥⡦楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤⥨㴠‽渧浵敢❲⤠笊 †眠㴠眠湩潤湩敮坲摩桴††‽楷摮睯椮湮牥效杩瑨汥敳椠搨捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⁴☦⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥䡴楥桧⥴††⁷‽潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥坴摩桴††‽潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥䡴楥桧㭴紊攊獬晩⠠潤畣敭瑮戮摯⁹☦⠠潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮楗瑤籼搠捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥䡴楥桧⥴††⁷‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨 †栠㴠搠捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥䡴楥桧㭴紊爊瑥牵⠨⁷‾業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬 ☦⠠‾業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬⤩⡽⤩⤩ਊਊ楷摮睯漮汮慯‽畦据楴湯⤨笊 †瘠牡映㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉∨潆瑯牥摁⤢††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥戢摯≹嬩崰††灡数摮桃汩⡤⥦††瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戢潬正㬢 †搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉✨祬潣䙳潯整䅲楤牆浡❥⸩牳‽⼧摡⽭摡是潯整䅲晩慲敭栮浴❬††ਊ †ਠ††⼯䐠䵏䤠橮䄠††昨湵瑣潩⡮獩牔汥楬⥸ †笠 †††瘠牡攠㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴椧牦浡❥㬩 †††攠献祴敬戮牯敤‽〧㬧 †††攠献祴敬洮牡楧‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫††††瑳汹獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠楲桧❴††††瑳汹敨杩瑨㴠✠㔲瀴❸††††瑳汹癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††攠献祴敬瀮摡楤杮㴠〠††††瑳汹楷瑤‽㌧〰硰㬧ਊ †††瘠牡椠䉳潬敫䉤䑹浯楡‽畦据楴湯 牨晥⤠ †††笠 †††††瘠牡戠潬正摥潄慭湩‽ਜ਼††††††††愢慮祮灡牯ㅮ〳〰琮楲潰潣≭ਬ††††††††砢硸潰湲硸牴灩摯挮浯ਢ††††††㭝 †††††瘠牡映慬‽慦獬㭥 †††††ਠ††††††潦⡲瘠牡椠〽※㱩汢捯敫䑤浯楡獮氮湥瑧㭨椠⬫⤠ †††††笠 †††††††椠⡦栠敲敳牡档 汢捯敫䑤浯楡獮⁛⁝ 㴾〠⤠ †††††††笠 †††††††††映慬‽牴敵††††††††††††††††††††敲畴湲映慬㭧 †††素ਊ††††慶敧䵴瑥䍡湯整瑮㴠映湵瑣潩⡮洠瑥乡浡††††††††††慶敭慴‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥洧瑥❡㬩 †††††映牯⠠㵩㬰椠洼瑥獡氮湥瑧㭨椠⬫††††††⁻ †††††††椠⡦洠瑥獡楛敧䅴瑴楲畢整∨慮敭⤢㴠‽敭慴慎敭⤠ †††††††笠ਠ††††††††††敲畴湲洠瑥獡楛敧䅴瑴楲畢整∨潣瑮湥≴㬩ਠ††††††††⁽ †††††素 †††††爠瑥牵慦獬㭥 †††素 †††ਠ††††慶敧䍴浯敭瑮潎敤‽畦据楴湯爨来硥慐瑴牥⥮ †††笠 †††††瘠牡渠摯獥㴠笠㭽 †††††瘠牡渠摯獥⁁‽嵛††††††慶牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳㴠嬠愧Ⱗ✠❣戧崧†††† †††††⠠畦据楴湯朠瑥潎敤味慨䡴癡䍥浯敭瑮⡳Ɱ瀠瑡整湲††††††††††††††晩⠠慨䍳楨摬潎敤⡳⤩ †††††††笠 †††††††††椠渨琮条慎敭㴠㴽✠䙉䅒䕍⤧ †††††††††笠 †††††††††††爠瑥牵慦獬㭥 †††††††††素 †††††††††映牯⠠慶‽㬰椠㰠渠挮楨摬潎敤敬杮桴※⭩⤫ †††††††††笠 †††††††††††椠⠨档汩乤摯獥楛潮敤祔数㴠㴽㠠 ☦⠠慰瑴牥整瑳渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯噥污敵⤩††††††††††††††††††††††††††慶牡慥慎敭㴠瀠瑡整湲攮數⡣档汩乤摯獥楛潮敤慖畬⥥ㅛ㭝 †††††††††††††渠摯獥慛敲乡浡嵥㴠渠††††††††††††††††††††††††汥敳椠渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯呥灹㴽‽⤱ †††††††††††笠 †††††††††††††朠瑥潎敤味慨䡴癡䍥浯敭瑮⡳档汩乤摯獥楛ⱝ瀠瑡整湲㬩 †††††††††††素 †††††††††素 †††††††素 †††††素搨捯浵湥潢祤敲敧偸瑡整湲⤩ †††††映牯⠠慶湩瀠敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩⥴ †††††笠 †††††††椠渨摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩⥝ †††††††笠 †††††††††椠⡦椠味敲汬硩☠…潮敤孳牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳楛嵝瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤⤠ †††††††††笠 †††††††††††渠摯獥⹁異桳渨摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯⥥††††††††††††††††††††汥敳 †††††††††笠 †††††††††††渠摯獥⹁異桳 潮敤孳牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳楛嵝⤠††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††敲畴湲渠摯獥㭁 †††素 †††ਠ†††† †††瘠牡瀠潲数乲摯‽畮汬††††慶牡慥潎敤‽敧䍴浯敭瑮潎敤⡳渠睥删来硅⡰✠慞敲祔数∽牡慥⡟屜⭷∩‧ 㬩ਊ††††潦瘨牡椠㴠〠※‼牡慥潎敤敬杮桴※⭩⤫ †††笠 †††††瘠牡愠㴠瀠牡敳湉⡴敧䍴浯異整卤祴敬愨敲乡摯獥楛⥝眮摩桴㬩 †††††椠⠨㴾㌠〰 ☦⠠㴼㐠〰⤩ †††††笠 †††††††瀠潲数乲摯‽牡慥潎敤孳嵩††††††††牢慥㭫 †††††素 †††素ਊ †††瘠牡瀠潲数瑲乹浡‽敧䵴瑥䍡湯整瑮∨牰灯牥祴⤢簠⁼慦獬㭥 †††椠⡦椠味敲汬硩☠…瀨潲数乲摯⥥⤠ †††笠 †††††攠献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤湩敪瑣摁椮牦浡瑨汭㬧 †††††瀠潲数乲摯湩敳瑲敂潦敲攨牰灯牥潎敤昮物瑳桃汩⥤††††††††汥敳椠⡦椠味敲汬硩☠…⠡瀠潲数乲摯 ⼯匠慬⁰桴摡攠敶瑮潨杵瑨琠敨敲椠潮愠潬慣整汳瑯 †††笠 †††††攠献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤湩敪瑣摁椮牦浡瑨汭㬧 †††††攠献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽渧湯❥††††††慶摣癩㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴搧癩⤧††††††摣癩献祴敬㴠∠楷瑤㩨〳瀰㭸慭杲湩ㄺ瀰⁸畡潴∻††††††摣癩愮灰湥䍤楨摬 㬩 †††††戠椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥摣癩慬瑳桃汩⥤††††††††汥敳椠⡦℠獩求歯摥祂潄慭湩 潬慣楴湯栮敲 ††††††††††慶湩䙪㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴椧牦浡❥㬩 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹潢摲牥㴠✠✰††††††湩䙪献祴敬洮牡楧‽㬰 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戧潬正㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠潮敮㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹敨杩瑨㴠✠㔲瀴❸††††††湩䙪献祴敬漮敶晲潬⁷‽栧摩敤❮††††††湩䙪献祴敬瀮摡楤杮㴠〠††††††湩䙪献祴敬眮摩桴㴠✠〳瀰❸††††††湩䙪献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤湩敪瑣摁椮牦浡瑨汭㬧ਊ††††††晩 ☦⠠℠獩牔汥楬⁸籼⠠琠灹潥獩牔汥楬⁸㴽∠湵敤楦敮≤⤠⤠⤠⼠ 汁瑯敨牴灩摯瀠潲獰 †††††笠 †††††††瘠牡挠楤⁶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨楤❶㬩 †††††††挠楤瑳汹‽眢摩桴㌺〰硰活牡楧㩮〱硰愠瑵㭯㬢 †††††††挠楤灡数摮桃汩⡤椠橮⁆㬩 †††††††戠椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥摣癩慬瑳桃汩⥤††††††⁽ †††素 素 潤畣敭瑮椮味敲汬硩⤠㬩紊ਊ⼼捳楲瑰ਾ㰊楤⁶摩∽扴损湯慴湩牥•瑳汹㵥戢捡杫潲湵㩤䐣䑆䍃㭆戠牯敤潢瑴浯ㄺ硰猠汯摩⌠㤳㤳㤳※潰楳楴湯爺汥瑡癩㭥稠椭摮硥㤺㤹㤹㤹㤹椡灭牯慴瑮㸢㰊ⴡ昭牯慮敭∽敳牡档•湯畓浢瑩∽敲畴湲猠慥捲楨⡴∩椠㵤栧慥敤彲敳牡档‧ਾ椼灮瑵琠灹㵥琢硥≴瀠慬散潨摬牥∽敓牡档•楳敺㌽‰慮敭∽敳牡档∲瘠污敵∽㸢㰊湩異⁴祴数∽畢瑴湯•慶畬㵥䜢Ⅿ•湯汃捩㵫猢慥捲楨⡴∩ਾ⼼潦浲ਾ猼祴敬ਾ潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档笠 †眠摩桴›ㄹ瀶㭸 †洠牡楧㩮〠愠瑵瀸㭸 †瀠獯瑩潩㩮爠汥瑡癩㭥紊ਊ昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異⁴††敨杩瑨›〴硰††潦瑮猭穩㩥ㄠ瀴㭸 †氠湩ⵥ敨杩瑨›〴硰††慰摤湩㩧〠㠠硰††潢楳楺杮›潢摲牥戭硯††慢正牧畯摮›䘣䘴䔲㬹 †戠牯敤㩲ㄠ硰猠汯摩⌠䉂㡂㡂††牴湡楳楴湯›慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯㌠〰獭攠獡ⵥ畯ⱴ †††††††挠汯牯㌠〰獭攠獡㭥紊ਊ潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥琢硥≴⁝††楷瑤㩨ㄠ〰㬥紊昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢昺捯獵笠 †戠牯敤潣潬㩲⌠㉁い㐵††慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯›昣晦††潢桳摡睯›‰瀰⁸㈱硰ⴠ瀴⁸䄣䐲㔰㬴紊ਊਊ潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戢瑵潴≮⁝††潰楳楴湯›扡潳畬整††潴㩰ㄠ硰††楲桧㩴ㄠ硰††灯捡瑩㩹ㄠ††慢正牧畯摮›䐣䑆䍃㭆 †挠汯牯›㐣㌶㌷㬴 †眠摩桴›㈱瀵㭸 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†素ਊ慶敳牡档瑟牥‽湥潣敤剕䍉浯潰敮瑮搨捯浵湥敳牡档献慥捲㉨瘮污敵慶敳牡档畟汲㴠猠慥捲彨湥⭶敳牡档瑟牥㭭眊湩潤灯湥猨慥捲彨牵⥬爊瑥牵慦獬⼼捳楲瑰ⴭਾ猼祴敬ਾ††愮䍤湥整䍲慬獳浻牡楧㩮‰畡潴⼼瑳汹㹥㰊楤⁶摩∽扴慟≤挠慬獳∽摡敃瑮牥汃獡≳猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※楷瑤㩨ㄹ瀶㭸㸢㰊牨晥∽瑨灴⼺愯瑤慲正洮湩獩整楲污⸵潣⽭汣捩湫睥㼯㵡㌶㌷㐹•楴汴㵥戢極摬礠畯睯敷獢瑩瑡吠楲潰潣≭猠祴敬∽汦慯㩴敬瑦※楷瑤㩨㠱瀶㭸戠牯敤㩲∰ਾ椼杭猠捲∽瑨灴⼺氯祬潧挮浯氯⽹灴楓整椯慭敧⽳牦敥摁⸲灪≧愠瑬∽慍敫礠畯睯牦敥眠扥楳整漠牔灩摯挮浯•瑳汹㵥戢牯敤㩲㬰搠獩汰祡戺潬正•㸯㰊愯‾ਊ搼癩椠㵤愢彤潣瑮楡敮≲猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴映潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴㜺㠲硰∠ਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴ਾ潤畣敭瑮眮楲整椨氢慥敤扲慯摲•湩氠捹獯慟祬潣彳摡❛敬摡牥潢牡❤⥝⼯潤畣敭瑮眮楲整氨捹獯慟孤氧慥敤扲慯摲崧㬩㰊猯牣灩㹴㰊搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴ਾ潤畣敭瑮眮楲整椨猢楬敤≲椠祬潣彳摡氠捹獯慟孤猧楬敤❲⥝⼯潤畣敭瑮眮楲整氨捹獯慟孤猧楬敤❲⥝⼼捳楲瑰‾ℼⴭ愠摤摥㜠㈯′ⴭਾ搼癩椠㵤䘢潯整䅲≤猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮⌺䙄䍄䙃※潢摲牥琭灯ㄺ硰猠汯摩⌠㤳㤳㤳※汣慥㩲潢桴※楤灳慬㩹潮敮※楷瑤㩨〱┰椡灭牯慴瑮※潰楳楴湯爺汥瑡癩㭥稠椭摮硥㤺㤹㤹ℹ浩潰瑲湡㭴栠楥桧㩴〹硰椡灭牯慴瑮㸢ਠ搼癩挠慬獳∽摡敃瑮牥汃獡≳猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※楷瑤㩨ㄹ瀶㭸㸢㰊牨晥∽瑨灴⼺愯瑤慲正洮湩獩整楲污⸵潣⽭汣捩湫睥㼯㵡㌶㌷㐹•楴汴㵥戢極摬礠畯睯敷獢瑩瑡吠楲潰潣≭猠祴敬∽汦慯㩴敬瑦※楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰※潢摲牥〺㸢㰊浩牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯祬氮杹潣⽭祬琯印瑩⽥浩条獥是敲䅥㉤樮杰•污㵴䴢歡潹牵漠湷映敲敷獢瑩湯吠楲潰潣≭猠祴敬∽潢摲牥〺※楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫∠⼠ਾ⼼㹡ਠ搼癩椠㵤昢潯整䅲彤潣瑮楡敮≲猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴映潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴㜺㠲硰㸢㰊晩慲敭椠㵤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁䙩慲敭•瑳汹㵥戢牯敤㩲㬰搠獩汰祡戺潬正※汦慯㩴敬瑦※敨杩瑨㤺瀶㭸漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※慰摤湩㩧㬰眠摩桴㜺〵硰㸢⼼晩慲敭ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶ਊ