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The "Suffering Servant" in ch.53 of Y'shayahu
by Prof. Mordochai ben-Tziyyon, Universitah Ha'ivrit, Y'rushalayim
Chapter 53 of Y'shayahu's book, as it appears in "King James's Per-Version" and other christian "Per-Versions", certainly seems to be a clear and explicit prediction of the career, and most particularly the death, of the christian man-god. But of course it does: christians deliberately write their translations to make it look that way. Is this what the prophet was really talking about, though? Let's examine the chapter, translate it honestly, and find out.
The very first point to note is that the Hebrew prophet Y'shayahu − whose prophetic career spanned the reigns of four kings of Y'hudah: Azaryah-Uzziyahu (reigned 810-759BCE), Yotam (758-743BCE), Aḥaz (742-727BCE) and Ḥizkiyyahu (726-698BCE) − describes his book in its opening verse as "the Visions that he saw concerning Y'hudah and Y'rushalayim". He was not sent to speak to all the nations of the World, or even to all of Yisraél, although the Northern Kingdom was still in existence throughout most of his life − it was overthrown by the Assyrian king Sargon II (reigned 721-705BCE) in the 6th year of Ḥizkiyyahu's reign, i.e. 721BCE (M'lachim Beit 18:10).
By the way, there is no suggestion that Y'shayahu's prophetic career lasted from 810BCE (when Azaryah-Uzziyahu succeeded his father Amatz'yahu) until 698BCE (when Ḥizkiyyahu died), a period of 112 years; indeed, chapter 6 (which describes how he had volunteered himself to serve as God's Prophet and was first commissioned by God to bring His messages to the people of Y'hudah) begins "In the year of King Uzziyahu's death..." This begs the question: how, then, could he say in the opening verse of the book that he prophesied during Azaryah-Uzziyahu's reign? I have no idea how christians would respond to that (or if they would even care), but our understanding of it is that King Uzziyahu's "death" that Y'shayahu mentions in 6:1 refers not to the end of his life, but to the time when he was stricken with the "living death" of tzara'at (or Levitical "leprosy"), as described in Divrei Hayamim Beit 26:16-23. This is entirely consistent with Hebrew culture; compare Aharon's anguished plea to his brother Mosheh on behalf of their sister Miryam, who had just been stricken with the same affliction − "Please don't let her remain like a dead person..." (B'midbar 12:12). The passage in Divrei Hayamim gives no indication of when during Azaryah-Uzziyahu's 52-year reign this occurred, but M'lachim does−
|"Azaryah son of Amatz'yahu, king of Y'hudah was [already] reigning in King Yarov'am [the Second] of Yisraél's 27th year... when Adonai struck the king with the 'Plague'..." (M'lachim Beit 15:1-5)|
The Hebrew word נֶֽגַע nega' (a "plague") is often used in the T'nach as a synonym for the the contaminative disease properly called צָרַֽעַת tzara'at ("Levitical leprosy"), on account of D'varim 24:8 (הִשָּֽׁמֶר בְּנֶֽגַע הַצָּרַֽעַת "be careful about the plague of tzara'at...") and also because of the many instances where the two terms are used together in chapters 13 & 14 of Vayikra.
King Yarov'am II of Yisraél's 27th year (not counting the 3 years of his co-regency with his father Y'hoa'sh) was 783BCE, so that is when Y'shayahu's prophetic career actually started. According to Hebrew tradition, he was murdered by the wicked king M'nasheh, whose reign began in 697BCE − so his prophetic career lasted for at least 86 years.
The next point to be considered is where exactly the "Suffering Servant" passage begins. It does not start at the verse numbered 53:1. The illustration below shows chapter 53 as a scribe writes it in a scroll used for ceremonial readings on Shabbat and Holy Days; the "Suffering Servant" passage begins at the break in the third line of this extract (which is the verse numbered 52:13 in modern Bibles) and ends at the break in the last-but-one line (53:12):
It is widely recognised that Y'shayahu's book is really two books in one (chapters 1-39 and chapters 40-66) − some christians even assert that it's actually the work of two different authors, and call the second half by the name "Deutero-Isaiah" − so I need not cover that topic at any length here. Suffice it to say that the whole tone and language of the book changes at the start of chapter 40.
Whether the two halves of Y'shayahu were written by the same author or by two different authors, the writer in the second half was very fond of the term "God's servant", which he uses many times as a metaphor for Yisraél − that is to say, the whole Hebrew nation, not the individual named Yisraél, i.e. the patriarch Ya'akov. Here are some examples:
"But you, Yisraél − My servant Ya'akov, whom I chose − My beloved Avraham's zera...." (41:8)
"You are My witnesses," says Adonai, "My servant whom I chose...." (43:10) [the whole of chapter 43 is addressed explicitly to Yisraél in its opening verse]
"And now, listen, Ya'akov My servant, and Yisraél whom I have chosen...." (44:1)
"....Don't be afraid, My servant Ya'akov, Y'shurun whom I have chosen...." (44:2)
"Remember these things Ya'akov, Yisraél : you are My servant − I made you to be a servant to Me, Yisraél...." (44:21)
"For the sake of My servant Ya'akov − Yisraél My chosen one...." (45:4)
"Adonai has redeemed His servant Ya'akov!" (48:20)
"You are My servant, Yisraél...." (49:3)
Having used the metaphor "God's servant" so many times in chapters 41-49, and made it so abundantly clear that by it he meant the nation of Yisraél every time he used it, I guess the writer didn't feel he needed to spell it out yet again when he reached chapter 53; but of course he didn't reckon with christianity coming along and twisting his words. Maybe, if he had realised what was going to happen, he would have spelt it out again, in words of one syllable, in the "Suffering Servant" chapter. But in any event, the evidence of his many previous usages of the metaphor is there for all to see, and there is no indication that the intended meaning in the "Suffering Servant" chapter is any different. Can anyone deny that Yisraél has suffered through the ages? The consequence is that whenever the writer refers to the "servant" using the pronouns he, him or his, we must take into account when translating his poetic metaphors that he is talking about an entire nation rather than an individual person, so that it is actually more appropriate in a translation to use the plural forms they, them and their. Verse 53:8 confirms that this is indeed the correct reading, because it uses the plural form לָֽמוֹ lamo (a poetic variant of לָהֶם lahem, "to them"), so it cannot be the author's intention for the "servant" to be understood as an individual.
Many christians claim that "the Rabbis of the Talmud" believed the "Suffering Servant" to be a reference to "the Messiah" − but that assertion is a gross misrepresentation. While it is certainly true that a few of the Talmudic authorities were of that opinion, they were very much in the minority. The 11th century French Bible commentator Rashi (who lived a mere 500 years after the completion of the Babylonian Talmud) drew the majority of his explanations of the Scriptures from the Talmud, and he definitely did not see the "Suffering Servant" as a reference to "the Messiah". The simple truth is that Y'shayahu 53 is a "messianic prophecy", but it's about what will happen in King-Messiah's time, not about King-Messiah himself.
The first three verses of the chapter (i.e. the three that are transplanted to the end of chapter 52 in modern printed Bibles), which segue seamlessly into the beginning of "chapter 53" in the original Hebrew text, read as follows:
|My "servant" will succeed in becoming uplifted, and will become exalted and very powerful. Just as many used to marvel about you and say "Their appearance is too hideous to be human," so [in the future] many nations will exclaim the same thing − their kings will be speechless because [suddenly] they will see things that were never talked about and will realise things that were never heard of [before]! "Who would have believed our report?" [they will say.....]|
The "kings of the gentile nations" continue speaking throughout most of "chapter 53" (apart from the last two verses where God Himself responds to them): looking back on the events of the past from their vantage-point in the distant future, they confess their own guilt for the part the gentile nations have played in the unjust persecution that we, Yisraél, have endured at their hands throughout history − how we, God's "servant", have suffered because of the "sins" that they committed against us. It is the several remarks of that nature in this passage which, because they are deliberately mis-translated in christian "Per-Versions" with the preposition for cunningly substituted in place of through or because of, are mistaken by naïve and unsuspecting christians for references to their man-god who (or so they are taught) suffered and died "for" their "sins".
Click here for a full translation (with optional commentary) of the whole passage.
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†潧杯敬慴異慢獤⤨攮慮汢卥湩汧剥煥敵瑳⤨†朠潯汧瑥条攮慮汢卥牥楶散⡳㬩 ⥽⼼捳楲瑰ਾਊ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴‾⠊畦据楴湯椨噳††晩 椡噳⤠ †笠 †††爠瑥牵㭮 †素 †瘠牡愠䵤牧㴠渠睥䄠䵤湡条牥⤨††慶祬潣彳牰摯獟瑥㴠愠䵤牧挮潨獯健潲畤瑣敓⡴㬩 †瘠牡猠潬獴㴠嬠氢慥敤扲慯摲Ⱒ∠敬摡牥潢牡㉤Ⱒ∠潴汯慢彲浩条≥琢潯扬牡瑟硥≴猢慭汬潢≸琢灯灟潲潭Ⱒ∠潦瑯牥∲猢楬敤≲㭝 †瘠牡愠䍤瑡㴠琠楨祬潣彳摡损瑡来牯㭹 †愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭瀧条❥愨䍤瑡☠…摡慃浤穯 ‿摡慃浤穯㨠✠敭扭牥⤧††晩⠠桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⥹ †笠 †††愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭欢祥潷摲Ⱒ琠楨祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲㬩 †素ਠ††汥敳椠⡦摡慃⁴☦愠䍤瑡昮湩彤桷瑡††††††摡杍敳䙴牯散偤牡浡✨敫睹牯❤摡慃楦摮睟慨⥴†††† †映牯⠠慶湩猠潬獴††††††慶汳瑯㴠猠潬獴獛㭝 †††椠愨䵤牧椮即潬䅴慶汩扡敬猨潬⥴††††††††††桴獩氮捹獯慟孤汳瑯⁝‽摡杍敧却潬⡴汳瑯㬩 †††素 †素ਊ††摡杍敲摮牥效摡牥⤨††摡杍敲摮牥潆瑯牥⤨⡽昨湵瑣潩⡮ 瘊牡眠㴠〠‽ⰰ洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯‽〳㬰ਊ晩⠠潴⁰㴽猠汥⥦笊 †爠瑥牵牴敵晩⠠祴数景眨湩潤湩敮坲摩桴 㴽✠畮扭牥‧††⁷‽楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤㭨 †栠㴠眠湩潤湩敮䡲楥桧㭴紊攊獬晩⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮☠…搨捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮楗瑤籼搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笊 †眠㴠搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨 †栠㴠搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮效杩瑨汥敳椠搨捯浵湥潢祤☠…搨捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笊 †眠㴠搠捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴††‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮效杩瑨敲畴湲⠠眨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤☠…栨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤㬩紊⤨⤩㬩ਊਊ眊湩潤湯潬摡㴠映湵瑣潩⡮††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤䘢潯整䅲≤㬩 †瘠牡戠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭∨潢祤⤢せ㭝 †戠愮灰湥䍤楨摬昨㬩 †映献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠∠汢捯≫††潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氧捹獯潆瑯牥摁䙩慲敭⤧献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤潦瑯牥摁椮牦浡瑨汭㬧 †ਠਊ†† †⼠ 佄⁍湉摁 †⠠畦据楴湯椨味敲汬硩††††††慶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨晩慲敭⤧††††瑳汹潢摲牥㴠✠✰††††瑳汹慭杲湩㴠〠††††瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戧潬正㬧 †††攠献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽爧杩瑨㬧 †††攠献祴敬栮楥桧⁴‽㈧㐵硰㬧 †††攠献祴敬漮敶晲潬⁷‽栧摩敤❮††††瑳汹慰摤湩‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬眮摩桴㴠✠〳瀰❸ਊ††††慶獩求歯摥祂潄慭湩㴠映湵瑣潩⡮栠敲††††††††††慶汢捯敫䑤浯楡獮㴠嬠 †††††††∠湡湡慹潰湲㌱〰⸰牴灩摯挮浯Ⱒ †††††††∠硸灸牯确硸琮楲潰潣≭ †††††崠††††††慶汦条㴠映污敳†††††† †††††映牯 慶㵩㬰椠戼潬正摥潄慭湩敬杮桴※⭩††††††††††††††晩 牨晥献慥捲⡨戠潬正摥潄慭湩孳椠崠⤠㸠‽‰††††††††††††††††††汦条㴠琠畲㭥 †††††††素 †††††素 †††††爠瑥牵汦条†††† †††瘠牡朠瑥敍慴潃瑮湥⁴‽畦据楴湯 敭慴慎敭⤠ †††笠 †††††瘠牡洠瑥獡㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨敭慴⤧††††††潦椨〽※㱩敭慴敬杮桴※⭩⤫ †††††笠ਠ††††††††晩 敭慴孳嵩朮瑥瑁牴扩瑵⡥渢浡≥ 㴽洠瑥乡浡††††††††⁻ †††††††††爠瑥牵敭慴孳嵩朮瑥瑁牴扩瑵⡥挢湯整瑮⤢※ †††††††素ਠ††††††††††††敲畴湲映污敳†††††††† †††瘠牡朠瑥潃浭湥乴摯獥㴠映湵瑣潩⡮敲敧偸瑡整湲††††††††††慶潮敤‽絻††††††慶潮敤䅳㴠嬠㭝 †††††瘠牡瀠敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩⁴‽❛❡挧Ⱗ✠❢㭝 †††ਠ††††††昨湵瑣潩敧乴摯獥桔瑡慈敶潃浭湥獴渨慰瑴牥⥮ †††††笠 †††††††椠渨栮獡桃汩乤摯獥⤨††††††††††††††††††晩⠠慴乧浡㴽‽䤧剆䵁❅††††††††††††††††††††††敲畴湲映污敳††††††††††††††††††††潦瘨牡椠㴠〠※‼档汩乤摯獥氮湥瑧㭨椠⬫††††††††††††††††††††††晩⠠渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯呥灹㴽‽⤸☠…瀨瑡整湲琮獥⡴档汩乤摯獥楛潮敤慖畬⥥⤩ †††††††††††笠 †††††††††††††瘠牡愠敲乡浡‽慰瑴牥硥捥渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯噥污敵嬩崱††††††††††††††潮敤孳牡慥慎敭⁝‽㭮 †††††††††††素 †††††††††††攠獬晩⠠档汩乤摯獥楛潮敤祔数㴠㴽ㄠ††††††††††††††††††††††††††敧乴摯獥桔瑡慈敶潃浭湥獴渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩慰瑴牥⥮††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††⡽潤畣敭瑮戮摯ⱹ爠来硥慐瑴牥⥮㬩ਊ††††††潦瘨牡椠椠牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳††††††††††††††晩⠠潮敤孳牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳楛嵝††††††††††††††††††晩 獩牔汥楬⁸☦渠摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯††††††††††††††††††††††潮敤䅳瀮獵⡨潮敤孳牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳楛嵝瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤㬩 †††††††††素 †††††††††攠獬††††††††††††††††††††††潮敤䅳瀮獵⡨渠摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩⁝㬩 †††††††††素 †††††††素 †††††素 †††††爠瑥牵潮敤䅳†††††††† †††ਠ††††慶牰灯牥潎敤㴠渠汵㭬 †††瘠牡愠敲乡摯獥㴠朠瑥潃浭湥乴摯獥 敮⁷敒䕧灸 帧牡慥吠灹㵥愢敲彡尨睜⤫✢⤠⤠ †††映牯⠠慶‽㬰椠㰠愠敲乡摯獥氮湥瑧㭨椠⬫††††††††††慶‽慰獲䥥瑮木瑥潃灭瑵摥瑓汹⡥牡慥潎敤孳嵩⸩楷瑤⥨††††††晩⠠愨㸠‽〳⤰☠…愨㰠‽〴⤰††††††††††††††牰灯牥潎敤㴠愠敲乡摯獥楛㭝 †††††††戠敲歡††††††††††ਊ††††慶牰灯牥祴慎敭㴠朠瑥敍慴潃瑮湥⡴瀢潲数瑲≹ 籼映污敳††††晩 獩牔汥楬⁸☦⠠牰灯牥潎敤 ††††††††††牳‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴晩慲敭栮浴❬††††††牰灯牥潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥ⱥ瀠潲数乲摯楦獲䍴楨摬㬩 †††素 †††攠獬晩 獩牔汥楬⁸☦℠ 牰灯牥潎敤⤠⤠⼠ 汓灡琠敨愠癥湥桴畯桧⁴桴牥獩渠污捯瑡摥猠潬ੴ††††††††††牳‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴晩慲敭栮浴❬††††††瑳汹獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠潮敮㬧 †††††瘠牡挠楤⁶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨楤❶㬩 †††††挠楤瑳汹‽眢摩桴㌺〰硰活牡楧㩮〱硰愠瑵㭯㬢 †††††挠楤灡数摮桃汩⡤攠⤠††††††湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨楤ⱶ戠氮獡䍴楨摬㬩 †††素 †††攠獬晩 椡䉳潬敫䉤䑹浯楡⡮氠捯瑡潩牨晥⤠⤠ †††笠 †††††瘠牡椠橮⁆‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨晩慲敭⤧††††††湩䙪献祴敬戮牯敤‽〧㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹慭杲湩㴠〠††††††湩䙪献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫††††††湩䙪献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽渧湯❥††††††湩䙪献祴敬栮楥桧⁴‽㈧㐵硰㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹慰摤湩‽㬰 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹楷瑤‽㌧〰硰㬧 †††††椠橮⹆牳‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴晩慲敭栮浴❬ †††††椠⡦戠☠… 椡味敲汬硩簠⁼ 祴数景椠味敲汬硩㴠‽產摮晥湩摥• ⼯䄠汬漠桴牥琠楲潰牰灯ੳ††††††††††††††慶摣癩㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴搧癩⤧††††††††摣癩献祴敬㴠∠楷瑤㩨〳瀰㭸慭杲湩ㄺ瀰⁸畡潴∻††††††††摣癩愮灰湥䍤楨摬 湩䙪⤠††††††††湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨楤ⱶ戠氮獡䍴楨摬㬩 †††††素ਠ†††††⡽搠捯浵湥獩牔汥楬⁸⤩㰊猯牣灩㹴ਊ搼癩椠㵤琢形潣瑮楡敮≲猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮⌺䙄䍄䙃※潢摲牥戭瑯潴㩭瀱⁸潳楬㌣㌹㌹㬹瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹㤹ℹ浩潰瑲湡≴ਾℼⴭ潦浲渠浡㵥猢慥捲≨漠卮扵業㵴爢瑥牵敳牡档瑩⤨•摩✽敨摡牥獟慥捲❨㸠㰊湩異⁴祴数∽整瑸•汰捡桥汯敤㵲匢慥捲≨猠穩㵥〳渠浡㵥猢慥捲㉨•慶畬㵥∢ਾ椼灮瑵琠灹㵥戢瑵潴≮瘠污敵∽潇∡漠䍮楬正∽敳牡档瑩⤨㸢㰊是牯㹭㰊瑳汹㹥昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲††楷瑤㩨㤠㘱硰††慭杲湩›‰畡潴㠠硰††潰楳楴湯›敲慬楴敶ਊ潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵笠 †栠楥桧㩴㐠瀰㭸 †映湯楳敺›㐱硰††楬敮栭楥桧㩴㐠瀰㭸 †瀠摡楤杮›‰瀸㭸 †戠硯猭穩湩㩧戠牯敤潢㭸 †戠捡杫潲湵㩤⌠㑆㉆㥅††潢摲牥›瀱⁸潳楬䈣䉂䈸㬸 †琠慲獮瑩潩㩮戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬〳洰慥敳漭瑵ਬ††††††††潣潬〳洰慥敳昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢笠 †眠摩桴›〱┰潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥琢硥≴㩝潦畣††潢摲牥挭汯牯›䄣䐲㔰㬴 †戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬㩲⌠晦㭦 †戠硯猭慨潤㩷〠〠硰ㄠ瀲⁸㐭硰⌠㉁い㐵ਊ昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽畢瑴湯崢笠 †瀠獯瑩潩㩮愠獢汯瑵㭥 †琠灯›瀱㭸 †爠杩瑨›瀱㭸 †漠慰楣祴›㬱 †戠捡杫潲湵㩤⌠䙄䍄䙃††潣潬㩲⌠㘴㜳㐳††楷瑤㩨ㄠ㔲硰††畣獲牯›潰湩整㭲 †栠楥桧㩴㌠瀸㭸 †戠牯敤㩲渠湯㭥紊昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢昺捯獵縠椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戧瑵潴❮㩝潨敶Ⱳ昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数✽畢瑴湯崧栺癯牥笠 †戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬㩲⌠㕁䕃㘵††潣潬㩲⌠晦㭦紊昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢昺捯獵縠椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戧瑵潴❮⁝††慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯›㔣䄲䑅㭆 †挠汯牯›昣晦㰊猯祴敬ਾ㰊捳楲瑰ਾ畦据楴湯猠慥捲楨⡴笩 †ਠ††⼯搠瑥牥業敮攠癮物湯敭瑮ਠ††慶敳牡档敟癮ਠ††晩⠠祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶湩敤佸⡦⸢摰∮ ‾ㄭ †††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档ㄵ瀮祬潣潣⽭⽡㬧 †素攠獬晩⠠祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶湩敤佸⡦⸢慱∮ ‾ㄭ †††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档ㄵ焮祬潣潣⽭⽡㬧 †素攠獬†††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档ㄵ氮捹獯挮浯愯✯††瘊牡猠慥捲彨整浲㴠攠据摯啥䥒潃灭湯湥⡴潤畣敭瑮献慥捲敳牡档⸲慶畬⥥瘊牡猠慥捲彨牵‽敳牡档敟癮猫慥捲彨整浲楷摮睯漮数⡮敳牡档畟汲㬩ਊ敲畴湲映污敳紊㰊猯牣灩㸭㰊瑳汹㹥 †⸠摡敃瑮牥汃獡筳慭杲湩〺愠瑵絯㰊猯祴敬ਾ搼癩椠㵤琢形摡•汣獡㵳愢䍤湥整䍲慬獳•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正椡灭牯慴瑮※癯牥汦睯栺摩敤㭮眠摩桴㤺㘱硰∻ਾ愼栠敲㵦栢瑴㩰⼯摡牴捡業楮瑳牥慩㕬挮浯振楬正敮⽷愿㘽㜳㤳∴琠瑩敬∽畢汩潹牵漠湷眠扥楳整愠⁴牔灩摯挮浯•瑳汹㵥昢潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰※潢摲牥〺㸢㰊浩牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯祬氮杹潣⽭祬琯印瑩⽥浩条獥是敲䅥㉤樮杰•污㵴䴢歡潹牵漠湷映敲敷獢瑩湯吠楲潰潣≭猠祴敬∽潢摲牥〺※楤灳慬㩹汢捯≫⼠ਾ⼼㹡ਠ㰊楤⁶摩∽摡损湯慴湩牥•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正椡灭牯慴瑮※汦慯㩴敬瑦※楷瑤㩨㈷瀸⁸㸢㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢椊琨灹潥祬潣彳摡℠㴽∠湵敤楦敮≤☠…氢慥敤扲慯摲•湩氠捹獯慟⥤笠 搠捯浵湥牷瑩⡥祬潣彳摡❛敬摡牥潢牡❤⥝⼼捳楲瑰ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢椊琨灹潥祬潣彳摡℠㴽∠湵敤楦敮≤☠…猢楬敤≲椠祬潣彳摡 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