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The 24 Books of the Hebrew Scriptures
by Prof. Mordochai ben-Tziyyon, Universitah Ha'ivrit, Y'rushalayim

I. Torah

The first division of the Hebrew Scriptures is called תּוֹרָה Torah. This word is often mistakenly translated as "Law", but while it is undeniably true that the books of the Torah division do contain all the laws God gave to Yisraél, the word itself is related to הוֹרָאָה hora'ah, derived from the verb לְהוֹרֹת to teach, and means a "teaching".

The Torah division of the Scriptures consists of the five books traditionally ascribed to Mosheh ("Moses") and are sometimes referred to as חֲמִשָּׁה חֻמְשֵׁי תוֹרָה ḥamishah ḥum'shei torah or "the five 'fifths' of the Torah", and consequently each of the five books can also be called a חוֹמֶשׁ ḥomesh or a חוּמָשׁ ḥumash, a "fifth"—this word is often erroneously applied to a volume containing all five "fifths" which can be used for studying or for following the weekly torah-readings at shabbat services.

The conventional Hebrew practice is to refer to the Torah's five books by their opening word or words; e.g., the first book opens with the words b'réshit bara elohim "At the start of God's creating...", so it's generally known as "the book B'réshit", meaning "the book that starts with the word b'réshit". The five books of the Torah division are—

         Hebrew name         English     chapters verses s'darim
1. בְּרֵאשִׁית B'réshit Genesis 050 1,534 043
2. שְׁמוֹת Sh'mot Exodus 040 1,209 029
3. וַיִּקְרָא Vayikra Leviticus 027 0,859 023
4. בְּמִדְבָּר B'midbar Numbers 036 1,288 032
5. דְּבָרִים D'varim Deuteronomy 034 0,955 027
      187 5,845 154

 

II. N'viyim

The second division of the Hebrew Scriptures is called נְבִיאִים N'viyim, or "Prophets". There are eight N'viyim... not eight "prophets", but rather eight "prophetic books". They are sub-divided into the four "earlier prophetic books" and the four "later prophetic books", the terms "earlier" and "later" referring to the positions of the books in the conventional arrangement of the 24 books. The only real significance of this sub-division is that the content of the four "earlier prophetic books" is predominantly historical in nature, while the four "later prophetic books" contain mostly chapters of poetic prophecy utterances. It should be noted that christian "versions" divide Sh'muél and M'lachim into two parts each, and T'reisar into twelve separate "books". The eight books of the N'viyim division are—

         Hebrew name         English     chapters verses s'darim
6. יְהוֹשֻׁעַ Y'hoshu'a Joshua 024 0,656* 014
7. שֹׁפְטִים Shoftim Judges 021 0,618* 014
8. שְׁמוּאֵל Sh'muél 1 Samuel (31 chapters, 811 verses)
2 Samuel (24 chapters, 695 verses)
055 1,506* 034
9. מְלָכִים M'lachim 1 Kings (22 chapters, 817 verses)
2 Kings (25 chapters, 719 verses)
047 1,536* 035
10. יְשַׁעְיָהוּ Y'shayahu Isaiah 066 1,295* 026
11. יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirm'yahu Jeremiah 052 1,365* 031
12. יְחֶזְקֵאל Y'ḥezkél Ezekiél 048 1,273* 029
13. תְּרֵיסַר Treisar

(or שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר Sh'neim Asar)
"The Twelve Prophets":
Hoshé'a (14 chapters, 197 verses)
Yo'él (4 chapters, 73 verses)
'Amos (9 chapters, 146 verses)
'Ovadyah (1 chapter, 21 verses)
Yonah (4 chapters, 48 verses)
Michah (7 chapters, 105 verses)
Naḥum (3 chapters, 47 verses)
Ḥavakkuk (3 chapters, 56 verses)
Tz'fanyah (3 chapters, 53 verses)
Ḥaggai (2 chapters, 38 verses)
Z'charyah (14 chapters, 211 verses)
Mal'achi (3 chapters, 55 verses)
067 1,050* 021
      380 9,299 204
*  The Masorah gives a count of 1,534 verses for M'lachim, but there are actually 1,536

 

III. K'tuvim

The third and final division of the Hebrew Scriptures is called כְּתוּבִים K'tuvim, or "Writings". The eleven K'tuvim include

  1. the three EMET books T'hillim, Mishlei, and Iyov (the term EMET is an acronym of the letters א alef, מ mem, ת tav which are the initials (in reverse order) of the names T'hillim, Mishlei, and Iyyov);
  2. the five m'gillot or "Scrolls" which are read at public prayer services on various festivals—i.e. Shir Hashirim (read on Pesaḥ), Rut (read on Shavu'ot), Eichah (read on 9th Av), Kohelet (read on Sukkot), and Ester (read on Purim); and
  3. the three post-exilic compositions Daniyyél, Ez'ra-N'ḥemyah, and Div'rei Hayamim.

Note that christian "versions" divide Ez'ra-N'ḥemyah and Div'rei Hayamim into two parts each.The eleven books of the K'tuvim division are—

         Hebrew name         English     chapters verses s'darim
14. תְּהִלִּים T'hillim Psalms 150 2,527* 19
15. מִשְׁלֵי Mishlei Proverbs 031 0,915* 08
16. אִיּוֹב Iyyov Job 042 1,070* 08
17. שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים Shir Hashirim Solomon's Song
(or "Song of Songs")
008 0,117* 01
18. רוּת Rut Ruth 004 00,85* 01
19. אֵיכָה Eichah Lamentations 005 0,154* 01
20. קֹהֶלֶת Kohelet Ecclesiastes 012 0,222* 04
21. אֶסְתֵּר Estér Ester 010 0,167* 05
22. דָּנִיֵּאל Daniyyél Daniyyél 012 0,357* 07
23. עֶזְרָא וּנְחֶמְיָה Ez'ra-N'ḥemyah Ezra (10 chapters, 280 verses)
Nehemyah (13 chapters, 405 verses)
023 0,685* 10
24. דִּבְרֵי הַיָּמִים Divrei Hayamim 1 Chronicle (29 chapters)
2 Chronicle (36 chapters)
065 1,656* 25
      362 7,955* 89
*  The Masorah gives a count of 688 verses for Ezra-N'ḥemyah, but there are actually only 685

The total number of chapters in the 24 books is 929, the total number of verses is 23,099 and the total number of s'darim is 447.

 

References to the T'nach in the christians' pagan Greek books

The pagan books of the christian Greek "Testament" refer to the T'nach ten times as "the Torah and the N'viyim"—

Mattai ["Matthew"] 5:17, 7:12, 11:13, 22:40;
Lukos ["Luke"] 16:16;
Yoḥanan ["John"] 1:45;
Ma'asei hashliḥim ["The Envoys' Deeds"] 13:15, 24:14, 28:23; and
Iggeret el haromiyim ["Letter to the Romans"] 3:21
and once (Lukos 24:44) as "the Torah, the N'viyim and the T'hillim" (because T'hillim is the first of the K'tuvim books). This is clear evidence that those pagan authors were familiar with the arrangement of the books in the Hebrew T'nach (even though they didn't understand what the Hebrew text said!) and couldn't have been using a Greek translation (e.g. the so-called "pseudo-septuaginta" or "LXX"), because not even the very earliest christian translations preserve the Hebrew division of the books into the three sections Torah, N'viyim, K'tuvim.

Note: my citation of these verses should in no way be taken as an endorsement of their content, but merely as an indication that they refer explicitly to the T'nach.


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੻††⼯䜠瑥琠敨爠晥牥敲⁲敳牡档焠敵祲映潲潣歯敩‬晩愠慶汩扡敬ਮ††慶⁲晲⁲‽敧剴晥牥敲⡲㬩 †椠⁦爨牦㴠‽✧
敲畴湲映污敳਻††慶⁲ⁱ‽硥牴捡兴敵祲爨牦‬礧桡潯挮浯Ⱗ✠㵰⤧਻††晩⠠⥱爠瑥牵㭱 †焠㴠攠瑸慲瑣畑牥⡹晲Ⱳ✠Ⱗ✠㵱⤧਻††敲畴湲焠㼠焠㨠∠㬢紊昊湵瑣潩硥牴捡兴敵祲昨汵ⱬ猠瑩ⱥ焠灟牡浡
੻††慶⁲瑳牡⁴‽畦汬氮獡䥴摮硥晏猨瑩⥥਻††晩⠠瑳牡⁴㴽ⴠ⤱爠瑥牵慦獬㭥 †猠慴瑲㴠映汵⹬慬瑳湉敤佸⡦影慰慲⥭਻††晩⠠瑳牡⁴㴽ⴠ⤱爠瑥牵慦獬㭥 †猠慴瑲⬠‽影慰慲⹭敬杮桴਻††慶⁲湥⁤‽畦汬椮摮硥晏✨✦‬瑳牡⥴਻††晩⠠湥⁤㴽ⴠ⤱攠摮㴠映汵⹬敬杮桴਻††敲畴湲甠敮捳灡⡥畦汬献扵瑳楲杮猨慴瑲‬湥⥤⸩灳楬⡴•⤢樮楯⡮⬢⤢਻੽昊湵瑣潩敧敮慲整版晥愨慴Ⱨ琠浥汰瑡⥥੻††瑡条栮敲㵦整灭慬整爮灥慬散✨䵟啙䱒❟‬楷摮睯氮捯瑡潩⹮牨晥爮灥慬散✨瑨灴⼺✯‬✧⤩爮灥慬散✨䵟呙呉䕌❟‬䌧敨正㈥漰瑵㈥琰楨╳〲牔灩摯㈥䴰浥敢╲〲楳整✡㬩ਠ੽ਊ慶⁲祬潣彳摡㴠䄠牲祡⤨਻慶⁲祬潣彳湯潬摡瑟浩牥਻瘊牡挠彭潲敬㴠∠楬敶㬢瘊牡挠彭潨瑳㴠∠牴灩摯氮捹獯挮浯㬢瘊牡挠彭慴楸⁤‽⼢敭扭牥浥敢摤摥㬢瘊牡琠楲潰彤敭扭牥湟浡⁥‽洢牯潤档楡㬢瘊牡琠楲潰彤敭扭牥灟条⁥‽洢牯潤档楡琯湡捡⹨瑨汭㬢瘊牡琠楲潰彤慲楴杮彳慨桳㴠∠㌱㜹ㄹ㘷㜹攺㜸昹㈲改㤲㙥〲敦搱㕤挲晤ㄳ搸㔹∱਻瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤慣整潧祲㴠笠搢潭≺∺潳楣瑥屹栯獩潴祲Ⱒ漢瑮牡敧≴∺䌦呁昽浡汩╹〲湡╤〲楬敦瑳汹獥Ⱒ昢湩彤桷瑡㨢匢畴祤吠敨䈠扩敬索਻瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤敲潭整慟摤⁲‽㔢⸴㐲⸳㌱㌮∰਻慶⁲祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶⁲‽眢睷琮楲潰⹤祬潣⹳潣≭਻慶⁲祬潣彳摡瑟慲正獟慭汬㴠∠瑨灴⼺洯浥敢獲琮楲潰⹤潣⽭摡⽭浩⽧潣浭湯漯彴浳污晬慲敭朮晩爿湡㵤㈸㌳㠴㬢瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤牴捡彫敳癲摥㴠∠瑨灴⼺洯浥敢獲琮楲潰⹤潣⽭摡⽭浩⽧潣浭湯漯彴摡敳癲摥朮晩爿湡㵤㈸㌳㠴㬢瘊牡氠捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⁹‽敧兴敵祲⤨਻ਊ⼯⼯⼯䌠楲整⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ਯ慶⁲瑣彯潣普㴠笠愠琺畲ⱥ椠›㈢㐹Ⱒ挠∺浩≧‬睫›∢素㬠⠊畦据楴湯⠠笩 †瘠牡挠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猢牣灩≴㬩挠琮灹⁥‽琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬢挠愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥 †挠献捲㴠∠瑨灴⼺洯浥敢獲琮楲潰⹤潣⽭摡⽭慰瑲敮⽲牣瑩潥江彤睫樮≳਻††慶⁲⁳‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥戢摯≹嬩崰※⹳灡数摮桃汩⡤⥣਻⥽⤨※ਊ⼼捳楲瑰ਾ㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰•牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯捳楲瑰⹳祬潣⹳潣⽭慣浴湡椯楮⹴獪㸢⼼捳楲瑰ਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴‾ਊ昨湵瑣潩⡮獩⥖笠 †椠⁦ℨ獩⥖笠 †††爠瑥牵㭮 †素ਊ††⼯桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⁹‽祬潣彳敧彴敳牡档牟晥牥敲⡲㬩 †瘠牡愠䵤牧㴠渠睥䄠䵤湡条牥⤨਻††慶⁲祬潣彳牰摯獟瑥㴠愠䵤牧挮潨獯健潲畤瑣敓⡴㬩 †瘠牡猠潬獴㴠嬠氢慥敤扲慯摲Ⱒ∠敬摡牥潢牡㉤Ⱒ∠潴汯慢彲浩条≥‬琢潯扬牡瑟硥≴‬猢慭汬潢≸‬琢灯灟潲潭Ⱒ∠潦瑯牥∲㭝 †瘠牡愠䍤瑡㴠琠楨⹳祬潣彳摡损瑡来牯㭹 †愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭瀧条❥‬愨䍤瑡☠…摡慃⹴浤穯
‿摡慃⹴浤穯㨠✠敭扭牥⤧਻ †椠⁦琨楨⹳祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲
੻††††摡杍⹲敳䙴牯散偤牡浡∨敫睹牯≤‬桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⥹਻††⁽ †攠獬⁥晩⠠摡慃⁴☦愠䍤瑡昮湩彤桷瑡
੻††††摡杍⹲敳䙴牯散偤牡浡✨敫睹牯❤‬摡慃⹴楦摮睟慨⥴਻††੽ †映牯⠠慶⁲⁳湩猠潬獴
੻††††慶⁲汳瑯㴠猠潬獴獛㭝 †††椠⁦愨䵤牧椮即潬䅴慶汩扡敬猨潬⥴
੻††††††桴獩氮捹獯慟孤汳瑯⁝‽摡杍⹲敧却潬⡴汳瑯㬩 †††素 †素ਊ††摡杍⹲敲摮牥效摡牥⤨਻††摡杍⹲敲摮牥潆瑯牥⤨਻⡽昨湵瑣潩⡮
੻††慶⁲⁷‽ⰰ栠㴠〠‬業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬㴠㌠〰਻††晩⠠潴⁰㴽猠汥⥦笠 †††爠瑥牵牴敵਻††੽ †椠⁦琨灹潥⡦楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤⥨㴠‽渧浵敢❲⤠笠 †††眠㴠眠湩潤⹷湩敮坲摩桴਻††††⁨‽楷摮睯椮湮牥效杩瑨਻††੽††汥敳椠⁦搨捯浵湥⹴潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⁴☦⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥䡴楥桧⥴
੻††††⁷‽潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥坴摩桴਻††††⁨‽潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥䡴楥桧㭴 †素 †攠獬⁥晩⠠潤畣敭瑮戮摯⁹☦⠠潤畣敭瑮戮摯⹹汣敩瑮楗瑤⁨籼搠捯浵湥⹴潢祤挮楬湥䡴楥桧⥴
੻††††⁷‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯⹹汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨 †††栠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴潢祤挮楬湥䡴楥桧㭴 †素ਊ††敲畴湲⠠眨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤☠…栨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤㬩紊⤨⤩㬩 †ਠ楷摮睯漮汮慯⁤‽畦据楴湯⤨笠 †瘠牡映㴠搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉∨潆瑯牥摁⤢਻††慶⁲⁢‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥戢摯≹嬩崰਻††⹢灡数摮桃汩⡤⥦਻††⹦瑳汹⹥楤灳慬⁹‽戢潬正㬢 †搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉✨祬潣䙳潯整䅲楤牆浡❥⸩牳⁣‽⼧摡⽭摡是潯整䅲⹤晩慲敭栮浴❬਻ਊ††⼯䐠䵏䤠橮捥楴湯䄠੤††昨湵瑣潩⡮獩牔汥楬⥸笠 †††瘠牡攠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴牣慥整汅浥湥⡴椧牦浡❥㬩 †††攠献祴敬戮牯敤⁲‽〧㬧 †††攠献祴敬洮牡楧‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠楲桧❴਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥敨杩瑨㴠✠㔲瀴❸਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††攠献祴敬瀮摡楤杮㴠〠਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥楷瑤⁨‽㌧〰硰㬧ਊ††††慶⁲敧䍴浯敭瑮潎敤⁳‽畦据楴湯爨来硥慐瑴牥⥮笠 †††††瘠牡渠摯獥㴠笠㭽 †††††瘠牡渠摯獥⁁‽嵛਻††††††慶⁲牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳㴠嬠愧Ⱗ✠❣‬戧崧਻ †††††⠠畦据楴湯朠瑥潎敤味慨䡴癡䍥浯敭瑮⡳Ɱ瀠瑡整湲
੻††††††††晩⠠⹮慨䍳楨摬潎敤⡳⤩笠 †††††††††椠⁦渨琮条慎敭㴠㴽✠䙉䅒䕍⤧笠 †††††††††††爠瑥牵慦獬㭥 †††††††††素 †††††††††映牯⠠慶⁲⁩‽㬰椠㰠渠挮楨摬潎敤⹳敬杮桴※⭩⤫笠 †††††††††††椠⁦⠨⹮档汩乤摯獥楛⹝潮敤祔数㴠㴽㠠
☦⠠慰瑴牥⹮整瑳渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯噥污敵⤩
੻††††††††††††††慶⁲牡慥慎敭㴠瀠瑡整湲攮數⡣⹮档汩乤摯獥楛⹝潮敤慖畬⥥ㅛ㭝 †††††††††††††渠摯獥慛敲乡浡嵥㴠渠਻††††††††††††੽††††††††††††汥敳椠⁦渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯呥灹⁥㴽‽⤱笠 †††††††††††††朠瑥潎敤味慨䡴癡䍥浯敭瑮⡳⹮档汩乤摯獥楛ⱝ瀠瑡整湲㬩 †††††††††††素 †††††††††素 †††††††素 †††††素搨捯浵湥⹴潢祤‬敲敧偸瑡整湲⤩਻ †††††映牯⠠慶⁲⁩湩瀠敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩⥴笠 †††††††椠⁦渨摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩⥝笠 †††††††††椠⁦渨摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩⹝慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯⹥慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯⥥笠 †††††††††††渠摯獥⹁異桳渨摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩⹝慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯⹥慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯⥥਻††††††††††੽††††††††੽††††††੽ †††††爠瑥牵潮敤䅳਻††††੽ †††瘠牡瀠潲数乲摯⁥‽畮汬਻††††慶⁲牡慥潎敤⁳‽敧䍴浯敭瑮潎敤⡳敮⁷敒䕧灸✨慞敲⁡祔数∽牡慥⡟屜⭷∩⤧㬩 †††映牯⠠慶⁲⁩‽㬰椠㰠愠敲乡摯獥氮湥瑧㭨椠⬫
੻††††††慶⁲⁡‽慰獲䥥瑮木瑥潃灭瑵摥瑓汹⡥牡慥潎敤孳嵩⸩楷瑤⥨਻††††††晩⠠愨㸠‽〳⤰☠…愨㰠‽〴⤰
੻††††††††牰灯牥潎敤㴠愠敲乡摯獥楛㭝 †††††††戠敲歡਻††††††੽††††੽ †††椠⁦⠨獩牔汥楬⥸☠…瀨潲数乲摯⥥
੻††††††⹥牳⁣‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴⹤晩慲敭栮浴❬਻††††††牰灯牥潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥ⱥ瀠潲数乲摯⹥楦獲䍴楨摬㬩 †††素 †††攠獬⁥੻††††††⹥牳⁣‽⼧摡⽭摡猯楬敤䅲⹤晩慲敭栮浴❬਻††††††慶⁲汳摩牥求捯‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氧獹楬敤⵲摡汢捯⵫牷灡数❲㬩 †††††瘠牡猠楬敤䡲汯敤⁲‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氧獹楬敤⵲摡汢捯⵫潨摬牥⤧਻††††††慶⁲汳摩牥汃獯⁥‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氧獹楬敤⵲摡汢捯⵫汣獯❥㬩 †††††猠楬敤䉲潬正献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫਻ †††††猠楬敤䍲潬敳漮据楬正㴠映湵瑣潩⡮
੻††††††††汳摩牥求捯⹫慰敲瑮潎敤爮浥癯䍥楨摬猨楬敤䉲潬正㬩 †††††††爠瑥牵慦獬㭥 †††††素ਊ††††††慶⁲晩慲敭湏潬摡㴠映湵瑣潩⡮
੻††††††††敳呴浩潥瑵⠨畦据楴湯猠楬楩敤⤨笠 †††††††††瘠牡猠㴠⠠楷摮睯朮瑥潃灭瑵摥瑓汹⥥㼠瀠牡敳湉⡴敧䍴浯異整卤祴敬猨楬敤䡲汯敤⥲爮杩瑨
›慰獲䥥瑮猨楬敤䡲汯敤⹲畣牲湥却祴敬爮杩瑨㬩 †††††††††椠⁦猨㰠‽⤰笠 †††††††††††猠楬敤䡲汯敤⹲瑳汹⹥楲桧⁴‽猨⬠㘠
‫瀧❸਻††††††††††††敳呴浩潥瑵猨楬楩敤‬〱㬩 †††††††††素 †††††††††攠獬⁥੻††††††††††††汳摩牥潈摬牥献祴敬爮杩瑨㴠✠瀰❸਻††††††††††††汳摩牥汃獯⹥瑳汹⹥楤灳慬⁹‽戧潬正㬧 †††††††††素 †††††††素Ⱙㄠ〰⤰਻††††††੽ †††††椠⁦攨愮瑴捡䕨敶瑮
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