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The 24 Books of the Hebrew Scriptures
by Prof. Mordochai ben-Tziyyon, Universitah Ha'ivrit, Y'rushalayim

I. Torah

The first division of the Hebrew Scriptures is called תּוֹרָה Torah. This word is often mistakenly translated as "Law", but while it is undeniably true that the books of the Torah division do contain all the laws God gave to Yisraél, the word itself is related to הוֹרָאָה hora'ah, derived from the verb לְהוֹרֹת to teach, and means a "teaching".

The Torah division of the Scriptures consists of the five books traditionally ascribed to Mosheh ("Moses") and are sometimes referred to as חֲמִשָּׁה חֻמְשֵׁי תוֹרָה ḥamishah ḥum'shei torah or "the five 'fifths' of the Torah", and consequently each of the five books can also be called a חוֹמֶשׁ ḥomesh or a חוּמָשׁ ḥumash, a "fifth"—this word is often erroneously applied to a volume containing all five "fifths" which can be used for studying or for following the weekly torah-readings at shabbat services.

The conventional Hebrew practice is to refer to the Torah's five books by their opening word or words; e.g., the first book opens with the words b'réshit bara elohim "At the start of God's creating...", so it's generally known as "the book B'réshit", meaning "the book that starts with the word b'réshit". The five books of the Torah division are—

         Hebrew name         English     chapters verses s'darim
1. בְּרֵאשִׁית B'réshit Genesis 050 1,534 043
2. שְׁמוֹת Sh'mot Exodus 040 1,209 029
3. וַיִּקְרָא Vayikra Leviticus 027 0,859 023
4. בְּמִדְבָּר B'midbar Numbers 036 1,288 032
5. דְּבָרִים D'varim Deuteronomy 034 0,955 027
      187 5,845 154

 

II. N'viyim

The second division of the Hebrew Scriptures is called נְבִיאִים N'viyim, or "Prophets". There are eight N'viyim... not eight "prophets", but rather eight "prophetic books". They are sub-divided into the four "earlier prophetic books" and the four "later prophetic books", the terms "earlier" and "later" referring to the positions of the books in the conventional arrangement of the 24 books. The only real significance of this sub-division is that the content of the four "earlier prophetic books" is predominantly historical in nature, while the four "later prophetic books" contain mostly chapters of poetic prophecy utterances. It should be noted that christian "versions" divide Sh'muél and M'lachim into two parts each, and T'reisar into twelve separate "books". The eight books of the N'viyim division are—

         Hebrew name         English     chapters verses s'darim
6. יְהוֹשֻׁעַ Y'hoshu'a Joshua 024 0,656* 014
7. שֹׁפְטִים Shoftim Judges 021 0,618* 014
8. שְׁמוּאֵל Sh'muél 1 Samuel (31 chapters, 811 verses)
2 Samuel (24 chapters, 695 verses)
055 1,506* 034
9. מְלָכִים M'lachim 1 Kings (22 chapters, 817 verses)
2 Kings (25 chapters, 719 verses)
047 1,536* 035
10. יְשַׁעְיָהוּ Y'shayahu Isaiah 066 1,295* 026
11. יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirm'yahu Jeremiah 052 1,365* 031
12. יְחֶזְקֵאל Y'ḥezkél Ezekiél 048 1,273* 029
13. תְּרֵיסַר Treisar

(or שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר Sh'neim Asar)
"The Twelve Prophets":
Hoshé'a (14 chapters, 197 verses)
Yo'él (4 chapters, 73 verses)
'Amos (9 chapters, 146 verses)
'Ovadyah (1 chapter, 21 verses)
Yonah (4 chapters, 48 verses)
Michah (7 chapters, 105 verses)
Naḥum (3 chapters, 47 verses)
Ḥavakkuk (3 chapters, 56 verses)
Tz'fanyah (3 chapters, 53 verses)
Ḥaggai (2 chapters, 38 verses)
Z'charyah (14 chapters, 211 verses)
Mal'achi (3 chapters, 55 verses)
067 1,050* 021
      380 9,299 204
*  The Masorah gives a count of 1,534 verses for M'lachim, but there are actually 1,536

 

III. K'tuvim

The third and final division of the Hebrew Scriptures is called כְּתוּבִים K'tuvim, or "Writings". The eleven K'tuvim include

  1. the three EMET books T'hillim, Mishlei, and Iyov (the term EMET is an acronym of the letters א alef, מ mem, ת tav which are the initials (in reverse order) of the names T'hillim, Mishlei, and Iyyov);
  2. the five m'gillot or "Scrolls" which are read at public prayer services on various festivals—i.e. Shir Hashirim (read on Pesaḥ), Rut (read on Shavu'ot), Eichah (read on 9th Av), Kohelet (read on Sukkot), and Ester (read on Purim); and
  3. the three post-exilic compositions Daniyyél, Ez'ra-N'ḥemyah, and Div'rei Hayamim.

Note that christian "versions" divide Ez'ra-N'ḥemyah and Div'rei Hayamim into two parts each.The eleven books of the K'tuvim division are—

         Hebrew name         English     chapters verses s'darim
14. תְּהִלִּים T'hillim Psalms 150 2,527* 19
15. מִשְׁלֵי Mishlei Proverbs 031 0,915* 08
16. אִיּוֹב Iyyov Job 042 1,070* 08
17. שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים Shir Hashirim Solomon's Song
(or "Song of Songs")
008 0,117* 01
18. רוּת Rut Ruth 004 00,85* 01
19. אֵיכָה Eichah Lamentations 005 0,154* 01
20. קֹהֶלֶת Kohelet Ecclesiastes 012 0,222* 04
21. אֶסְתֵּר Estér Ester 010 0,167* 05
22. דָּנִיֵּאל Daniyyél Daniyyél 012 0,357* 07
23. עֶזְרָא וּנְחֶמְיָה Ez'ra-N'ḥemyah Ezra (10 chapters, 280 verses)
Nehemyah (13 chapters, 405 verses)
023 0,685* 10
24. דִּבְרֵי הַיָּמִים Divrei Hayamim 1 Chronicle (29 chapters)
2 Chronicle (36 chapters)
065 1,656* 25
      362 7,955* 89
*  The Masorah gives a count of 688 verses for Ezra-N'ḥemyah, but there are actually only 685

The total number of chapters in the 24 books is 929, the total number of verses is 23,099 and the total number of s'darim is 447.

 

References to the T'nach in the christians' pagan Greek books

The pagan books of the christian Greek "Testament" refer to the T'nach ten times as "the Torah and the N'viyim"—

Mattai ["Matthew"] 5:17, 7:12, 11:13, 22:40;
Lukos ["Luke"] 16:16;
Yoḥanan ["John"] 1:45;
Ma'asei hashliḥim ["The Envoys' Deeds"] 13:15, 24:14, 28:23; and
Iggeret el haromiyim ["Letter to the Romans"] 3:21
and once (Lukos 24:44) as "the Torah, the N'viyim and the T'hillim" (because T'hillim is the first of the K'tuvim books). This is clear evidence that those pagan authors were familiar with the arrangement of the books in the Hebrew T'nach (even though they didn't understand what the Hebrew text said!) and couldn't have been using a Greek translation (e.g. the so-called "pseudo-septuaginta" or "LXX"), because not even the very earliest christian translations preserve the Hebrew division of the books into the three sections Torah, N'viyim, K'tuvim.

Note: my citation of these verses should in no way be taken as an endorsement of their content, but merely as an indication that they refer explicitly to the T'nach.


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湥⁤‽畦汬氮湥瑧㭨爊瑥牵湵獥慣数昨汵⹬畳獢牴湩⡧瑳牡ⱴ攠摮⤩献汰瑩∨∠⸩潪湩∨∫㬩紊昊湵瑣潩敧敮慲整版晥愨慴Ⱨ琠浥汰瑡⥥੻瑡条栮敲㵦整灭慬整爮灥慬散✨䵟啙䱒❟‬楷摮睯氮捯瑡潩⹮牨晥爮灥慬散✨瑨灴⼺✯‬✧⤩爮灥慬散✨䵟呙呉䕌❟✬桃捥╫〲畯╴〲桴獩㈥吰楲潰╤〲敍扭牥㈥猰瑩Ⅵ⤧※紊瘊牡氠捹獯慟⁤‽牁慲⡹㬩瘊牡氠捹獯潟汮慯彤楴敭㭲瘊牡挠彭潲敬㴠∠楬敶㬢瘊牡挠彭潨瑳㴠∠牴灩摯氮捹獯挮浯㬢瘊牡挠彭慴楸⁤‽⼢敭扭牥浥敢摤摥㬢瘊牡琠楲潰彤敭扭牥湟浡⁥‽洢牯潤档楡㬢瘊牡琠楲潰彤敭扭牥灟条⁥‽洢牯潤档楡琯湡捡⹨瑨汭㬢瘊牡琠楲潰彤慲楴杮彳慨桳㴠∠㌱㠹㐳㔳㤶㌺㥥㙤㜶戶ㅦ㝦戳㙡㐳戳昵搵昷ㄹ㥤∹਻瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤慣整潧祲㴠笠搢潭≺∺潳楣瑥屹栯獩潴祲Ⱒ漢瑮牡敧≴∺䌦呁昽浡汩╹〲湡╤〲楬敦瑳汹獥Ⱒ昢湩彤桷瑡㨢匢畴祤吠敨䈠扩敬索਻瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤敲潭整慟摤⁲‽㔢⸴㤱⸶㜵㐮㬢瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤睷彷敳癲牥㴠∠睷⹷牴灩摯氮捹獯挮浯㬢瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤牴捡彫浳污‽栢瑴㩰⼯敭扭牥⹳牴灩摯挮浯愯浤椯杭振浯潭⽮瑯獟慭汬牦浡⹥楧㽦慲摮㌽㌰㐸∰਻慶⁲祬潣彳摡瑟慲正獟牥敶⁤‽栢瑴㩰⼯敭扭牥⹳牴灩摯挮浯愯浤椯杭振浯潭⽮瑯慟獤牥敶⹤楧㽦慲摮㌽㌰㐸∰਻慶⁲祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲㴠朠瑥畑牥⡹㬩⼊䌯楲整੯慶⁲瑣彯潣普㴠笠愠琺畲ⱥ椠›㈢㐹Ⱒ挠∺浩≧‬睫›∢素㬠⠊畦据楴湯⠠笩瘊牡挠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猢牣灩≴㬩挠琮灹⁥‽琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬢挠愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥挊献捲㴠∠瑨灴⼺洯浥敢獲琮楲潰⹤潣⽭摡⽭慰瑲敮⽲牣瑩潥江彤睫樮≳਻慶⁲⁳‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥戢摯≹嬩崰※⹳灡数摮桃汩⡤⥣਻⥽⤨※㰊猯牣灩㹴㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰•牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯捳楲瑰⹳祬潣⹳潣⽭慣浴湡椯楮⹴獪㸢⼼捳楲瑰ਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴‾⠊畦据楴湯椨噳
੻晩⠠椡噳
੻敲畴湲਻੽慶⁲摡杍⁲‽敮⁷摁慍慮敧⡲㬩瘊牡氠捹獯灟潲彤敳⁴‽摡杍⹲档潯敳牐摯捵却瑥⤨਻慶⁲汳瑯⁳‽≛敬摡牥潢牡≤‬氢慥敤扲慯摲∲‬琢潯扬牡楟慭敧Ⱒ∠潴汯慢彲整瑸Ⱒ∠浳污扬硯Ⱒ∠潴彰牰浯≯‬昢潯整㉲崢਻慶⁲摡慃⁴‽桴獩氮捹獯慟彤慣整潧祲਻摡杍⹲敳䙴牯散偤牡浡✨慰敧Ⱗ⠠摡慃⁴☦愠䍤瑡搮潭⥺㼠愠䍤瑡搮潭⁺›洧浥敢❲㬩椊⁦琨楨⹳祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲
੻摡杍⹲敳䙴牯散偤牡浡∨敫睹牯≤‬桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⥹਻⁽攊獬⁥晩⠠摡慃⁴☦愠䍤瑡昮湩彤桷瑡
੻摡杍⹲敳䙴牯散偤牡浡✨敫睹牯❤‬摡慃⹴楦摮睟慨⥴਻੽潦⁲瘨牡猠椠汳瑯⥳笠瘊牡猠潬⁴‽汳瑯孳嵳਻晩⠠摡杍⹲獩汓瑯癁楡慬汢⡥汳瑯⤩笠琊楨⹳祬潣彳摡獛潬嵴㴠愠䵤牧朮瑥汓瑯猨潬⥴਻੽੽摡杍⹲敲摮牥效摡牥⤨਻摡杍⹲敲摮牥潆瑯牥⤨਻⡽昨湵瑣潩⡮
੻慶⁲⁷‽ⰰ栠㴠〠‬業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬㴠㌠〰਻晩⠠潴⁰㴽猠汥⥦笠爊瑥牵牴敵਻੽晩⠠祴数景眨湩潤⹷湩敮坲摩桴
㴽✠畮扭牥‧
੻⁷‽楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤㭨栊㴠眠湩潤⹷湩敮䡲楥桧㭴紊攊獬⁥晩⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮☠…搨捯浵湥⹴潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⹴汣敩瑮楗瑤⁨籼搠捯浵湥⹴潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⹴汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笠眊㴠搠捯浵湥⹴潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⹴汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨栊㴠搠捯浵湥⹴潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⹴汣敩瑮效杩瑨਻੽汥敳椠⁦搨捯浵湥⹴潢祤☠…搨捯浵湥⹴潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮戮摯⹹汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笠眊㴠搠捯浵湥⹴潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴਻⁨‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯⹹汣敩瑮效杩瑨਻੽敲畴湲⠠眨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤☠…栨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤㬩紊⤨⤩㬩眊湩潤⹷湯潬摡㴠映湵瑣潩⡮
੻慶⁲⁦‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤䘢潯整䅲≤㬩瘊牡戠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭∨潢祤⤢せ㭝戊愮灰湥䍤楨摬昨㬩昊献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠∠汢捯≫਻潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氧捹獯潆瑯牥摁䙩慲敭⤧献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤潦瑯牥摁椮牦浡⹥瑨汭㬧 †ਠ††⼯䐠䵏䤠橮䄠੤††昨湵瑣潩⡮獩牔汥楬⥸ †笠 †††瘠牡攠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴牣慥整汅浥湥⡴椧牦浡❥㬩 †††攠献祴敬戮牯敤⁲‽〧㬧 †††攠献祴敬洮牡楧‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠楲桧❴਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥敨杩瑨㴠✠㔲瀴❸਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††攠献祴敬瀮摡楤杮㴠〠਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥楷瑤⁨‽㌧〰硰㬧ਊ††††慶⁲敧䵴瑥䍡湯整瑮㴠映湵瑣潩⡮洠瑥乡浡⁥਩††††੻††††††慶⁲敭慴⁳‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥洧瑥❡㬩 †††††映牯⠠㵩㬰椠洼瑥獡氮湥瑧㭨椠⬫਩††††††⁻ †††††††椠⡦洠瑥獡楛⹝敧䅴瑴楲畢整∨慮敭⤢㴠‽敭慴慎敭⤠ †††††††笠ਠ††††††††††敲畴湲洠瑥獡楛⹝敧䅴瑴楲畢整∨潣瑮湥≴㬩ਠ††††††††⁽ †††††素 †††††爠瑥牵慦獬㭥 †††素 †††ਠ††††慶⁲敧䍴浯敭瑮潎敤⁳‽畦据楴湯爨来硥慐瑴牥⥮ †††笠 †††††瘠牡渠摯獥㴠笠㭽 †††††瘠牡渠摯獥⁁‽嵛਻††††††慶⁲牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳㴠嬠愧Ⱗ✠❣‬戧崧਻†††† †††††⠠畦据楴湯朠瑥潎敤味慨䡴癡䍥浯敭瑮⡳Ɱ瀠瑡整湲਩††††††੻††††††††晩⠠⹮慨䍳楨摬潎敤⡳⤩ †††††††笠 †††††††††椠⁦渨琮条慎敭㴠㴽✠䙉䅒䕍⤧ †††††††††笠 †††††††††††爠瑥牵慦獬㭥 †††††††††素 †††††††††映牯⠠慶⁲⁩‽㬰椠㰠渠挮楨摬潎敤⹳敬杮桴※⭩⤫ †††††††††笠 †††††††††††椠⁦⠨⹮档汩乤摯獥楛⹝潮敤祔数㴠㴽㠠
☦⠠慰瑴牥⹮整瑳渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯噥污敵⤩਩††††††††††††੻††††††††††††††慶⁲牡慥慎敭㴠瀠瑡整湲攮數⡣⹮档汩乤摯獥楛⹝潮敤慖畬⥥ㅛ㭝 †††††††††††††渠摯獥慛敲乡浡嵥㴠渠਻††††††††††††੽††††††††††††汥敳椠⁦渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯呥灹⁥㴽‽⤱ †††††††††††笠 †††††††††††††朠瑥潎敤味慨䡴癡䍥浯敭瑮⡳⹮档汩乤摯獥楛ⱝ瀠瑡整湲㬩 †††††††††††素 †††††††††素 †††††††素 †††††素搨捯浵湥⹴潢祤‬敲敧偸瑡整湲⤩਻ †††††映牯⠠慶⁲⁩湩瀠敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩⥴ †††††笠 †††††††椠⁦渨摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩⥝ †††††††笠 †††††††††椠⡦椠味敲汬硩☠…潮敤孳牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳楛嵝瀮牡湥乴摯⹥慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯⹥慰敲瑮潎敤⤠ †††††††††笠 †††††††††††渠摯獥⹁異桳渨摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩⹝慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯⹥慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯⥥਻††††††††††੽††††††††††汥敳 †††††††††笠 †††††††††††渠摯獥⹁異桳
潮敤孳牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳楛嵝⤠਻††††††††††੽††††††††੽††††††੽††††††敲畴湲渠摯獥㭁 †††素 †††ਠ†††† †††瘠牡瀠潲数乲摯⁥‽畮汬਻††††慶⁲牡慥潎敤⁳‽敧䍴浯敭瑮潎敤⡳渠睥删来硅⡰✠慞敲⁡祔数∽牡慥⡟屜⭷∩‧
㬩ਊ††††潦⁲瘨牡椠㴠〠※⁩‼牡慥潎敤⹳敬杮桴※⭩⤫ †††笠 †††††瘠牡愠㴠瀠牡敳湉⡴敧䍴浯異整卤祴敬愨敲乡摯獥楛⥝眮摩桴㬩 †††††椠⁦⠨⁡㴾㌠〰
☦⠠⁡㴼㐠〰⤩ †††††笠 †††††††瀠潲数乲摯⁥‽牡慥潎敤孳嵩਻††††††††牢慥㭫 †††††素 †††素ਊ †††瘠牡瀠潲数瑲乹浡⁥‽敧䵴瑥䍡湯整瑮∨牰灯牥祴⤢簠⁼慦獬㭥 †††椠⡦⠠椠味敲汬硩簠⁼牰灯牥祴慎敭㴠‽眢扥湯•
☦⠠牰灯牥潎敤
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