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The modern-day "Palestinians" who are they and where did they come from?
by Prof. Mordochai ben-Tziyyon, Universitah Ha'ivrit, Y'rushalayim
Unknown to most of the world population, the origin of the "Palestinian" Arabs' claim to Eretz Yisraél ("the Holy Land") spans a period of a meager 30 years—a drop in the bucket compared to the thousands of years of the region's long and rich history.
At the beginning of the 20th century, there were almost no Arabs in Eretz Yisraél. In contrast Hebrews (or "Jews"), despite 2000 years of persecution and forced conversions by various conquerors, have always made up the majority of the population here. Only about 5,000 Arabs resided here when the British military forces, commanded by General Allenby, conquered "Palestine" in 1917/18; the other Moslems livng in the area either came from Turkey under the Ottoman Empire, or were the descendants of Hebrews and christians who were forcefully converted to Islam by the Moslem conquerors. None of these other Moslems were of Arabic origin.
The local inhabitants at that time did not call themselves "Palestinians". The concept of a "Palestinian" to describe the local residents has not yet been invented; neither was there ever in history a "Palestinian Arab" nation. None of today's Arabs have any ancestral relationship to the original Biblical P'lishtians ("Philistines") who are now extinct. Even Arab historians have admitted that "Palestine" never existed:
In 1937, the Arab leader Auni Bey Abdul Hadi told the Peel Commission: "There is no such country as Palestine. Palestine is a term the Zionists invented. Palestine is alien to us."
In 1946, Princeton's Arab professor of Middle East history, Philip Hitti, told the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry: "It's common knowledge, there is no such thing as Palestine in history."
In March 1977, Zahir Muhsein, an executive member of the Palestinian Liberation Organization ("P.L.O."), said in an interview to the Dutch newspaper Trouw: "The 'Palestinian people' does not exist. The creation of a Palestinian state is only a means for continuing our struggle against the State of Yisraél."
Mark Twain (real name Samuel Langhorne Clemens, the famous author of "Tom Sawyer" and its sequel "Huckleberry Finn") toured Eretz Yisraél in 1867. This is how he described it: "A desolate country whose soil is rich enough but is given over wholly to weeds. A silent, mournful expanse. We never saw a human being on the whole route. There was hardly a tree or a shrub anywhere. Even the olive and the cactus, those fast friends of a worthless soil, had almost deserted the country."
In 1874, Reverend Samuel Manning wrote: "...But where were the inhabitants? This fertile plain, which might support an immense population, is almost a solitude... Day by day we were to learn afresh the lesson now forced upon us, that the denunciations of ancient prophecy have been fulfilled to the very letter: 'the land is left void and desolate and without inhabitants'."
In a report to the Palestinian Royal Commission (set up by the British authorities), there is an account of the conditions on the coastal plain along the Mediterranean Sea in 1913 (which was before the outbreak of hostilities in the First World War):
"The road leading from Gaza to the north was only a summer track, suitable for transport by camels or carts. No orange groves, orchards or vineyards were to be seen until one reached the [Jewish] Yabna village. Houses were mud. Schools did not exist. The western part toward the sea was almost a desert. The villages in this area were few and thinly populated. Many villages were deserted by their inhabitants."
The Arabs who now claim to be natives of Eretz Yisraél migrated to "Palestine" after 1918 from neighbouring Arab countries, predominantly from the areas that now comprise Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Iraq. None of these existed as independent countries prior to 1913. They were nothing but a disorganised collection of tribes, constantly terrorising each other and trying to seize land from their neighbours. Unfortunately, those Arab immigrants imported their age-old culture of terrorising neighbours to seize land into Eretz Yisraél. Many of them were social outcasts and criminals who couldn't find jobs in their own countries so they searched for their luck elsewhere. Some of them were accepted by the British regime as a source of cheap labour and were allowed to settle on unoccupied Hebrew land in Eretz Yisraél. Even Yassir Ara'fat, the leader of the P.L.O., is not a native of Eretz Yisraél: he was born in 1929 in Cairo, Egypt, served in the Egyptian army, studied in the University of Cairo, and lived in Cairo until 1956. He then moved to Saudi-Arabia and, in 1958, together with his Saudi-Arabian friends, founded the Al-Fatah terror organisation (precursor to the P.L.O.) in Kuwait.
Lewis French, the British Director of Development wrote about the Arabs in Eretz Yisraél:
"We found it inhabited by fellahin [Arab farmers] who lived in mud hovels and suffered severely from the prevalent malaria... Large areas were uncultivated... The fellahin, if not themselves cattle thieves, were always ready to harbour these and other criminals. The individual plots changed hands annually. There was little public security, and the fellahin's lot was an alternation of pillage and blackmail by their neighbours, the Bedouin [Arab nomads]."
The governor of the Syrian district of Hauran [the Biblical Ḥaran], Tewfik Bey El Hurani, admitted in 1934 that in a single period of only a few months over 30,000 Syrians from Hauran had moved to Palestine. Even British Prime Minister Winston Churchill noted the Arab influx. Churchill, a veteran of the early years of the British mandate in Eretz Yisraél, commented in 1939 that
"....far from being persecuted, the Arabs have crowded into the country and multiplied."
All four of my grandparents and also both of my parents were born in Eretz Yisraél in the 19th century. They saw with their own eyes how empty the land was at that time and they all frequently spoke about it during my childhood. They also lived through the British conquest and experienced first-hand the Arab immigration that followed, as did I. That wave of Arab immigration continued, unabated, right up to the British evacuation and the creation of the State of Yisraél in May of 1948.
The real problem facing those Arabs today is not the lack of a homeland. The historical root-cause of their problem and frustration is the fact that the countries they came from refuse to accept them back in. This is why so many of them live (right up until this very day) in refugee camps in neighbouring Arab countries, lacking fundamental civil rights. In their frustration they feel that the only hope and choice they have is to try and steal a country. Many of the vehicles and the agricultural equipment in the P.A. were stolen from their Yisr'éli neighbours. For a while, Yisraél suffered the highest rate of automobile thefts in the world! Most of the stolen vehicles were later found in towns and villages of the P.A. If stealing vehicles is so easy, why not try and steal the country too?
In their propaganda, the Arabs who now call themselves "Palestinians" consistently demand that Yisraél and the world recognize their pre-1948 rights. That's about 60 years ago. Mysteriously, they are never willing to add another 60 years to their "historical" claims on Eretz Yisraél. They know very well that doing so will send them back to where they came from—Jordan, Syria, Egypt, Lebanon, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Iraq. Years ago, during negotiations with these so-called "Palestinians", someone in Yisraél proposed an amendment to their claim for "pre-1948 rights" replacing it with "pre-1917". The "Palestinians" vehemently opposed this proposal—now we can see why!
The Islamic religion was invented by Muhammad in the 7th century of the Common Era. He lived in Saudi Arabia and never visited Eretz Yisraél or Y'rushalayim, and he didn't consider them important enough to be mentioned in the Kur'an even once. In contrast, the land on which the Holy Temple in Y'rushalayim stood was purchased by King David for the Hebrew nation about 1,000 years before the Common Era and the deed of sale, the name of the previous owner and even the purchase price are all recorded in the Bible (See chapter 24 of Shmuel Beit and chapter 21 of Divrei Hayamim Alef).
The best reference for understanding the Moslem-Arab mentality and politically-motivated distortion of history is Muhammad's own words in the Kur'an:
"War is deception".
Some Arabs consider themselves the descendants of Avraham, the ancestor of the Hebrew nation, but ironically, if it were not for Muhammad's thorough study of the Bible, the Arabs would never even have known of Avraham's existence! Muhammad studied the Bible in order to be the better equipped in his attempts to persuade Hebrews to follow his newly-invented religion. When they refused, he wrote the Kur'an (the Moslem bible), and filled it with his own imaginary accounts of Biblical events. He even took the liberty of changing the Hebrews' God-given day of rest, Saturday (Shabbat) and, since Sunday had already been taken by the christians, he picked Friday as the next-best choice for a Moslem "day of rest".
Today, the Moslem "Palestinians" claim that our Temple Mount, the ancient site of our Holy Temple in Y'rushalayim, is "their" holy site. But does anyone in the rest of the world know which way Moslems in Y'rushalayim face when they pray?—when Moslems in Y'rushalayim pray in their mosques, even in the Al Aktza mosque which is built on the very edge of our Temple Mount, they stand with their backs turned to our Temple Mount and, when they bow down in their prayers, they are actually pointing their backsides at it. How is that consistent with considering the Temple Mount a "holy site"? Visit any mosque in Y'rushalayim and see for yourself (if they will allow "infidels"—"unbelievers"—to enter during a prayer-session). It is a fact that Y'rushalayim is not mentioned even once in the Kur'an—while Mecca and Medina, the only two genuine Moslem "holy cities", are mentioned hundreds of times therein.
Our Holy Temple stood on the Temple Mount long before Islam, or any other current world religion, had been invented. Even when the founders of christianity walked the streets of ancient Y'rushalayim, not a single mosque or church stood here—only the Hebrew Holy Temple and nothing else.
Can any Moslem in the world produce any credible evidence for their connection to this holy site, apart from an alleged dream of Muhammad's? Believe it or not, the only sources on which the Moslem's claim to Y'rushalayim and to the site of our Holy Temple are based are an obscure mention in the Kur'an of a dream that Muhammad had about an unidentified "place far away", and an "ancient" document of highly questionable authenticity that was allegedly "discovered" by the former "Grand Mufti" of Y'rushalayim, Hajj Amin al-Husseini (nazi-sympathiser and friend of Adolf Hitler and, incidentally, also an uncle of our very own Mr Yassir Ara'fat), which he would never show to anyone else or submit for academic examination, and which mysteriously couldn't be found among his papers and effects following his death in Beirut in 1974. Perhaps the "place far away" that Muhammad dreamed about just happened to be the plot of land that 1500 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington D.C. now stands on?
There is only one possible solution to the "Palestinians'" desire for a homeland. If helping them go back to where they lived 60 years ago is their own definition of justice, then helping them go back to where they lived 120 years ago is, by the same definition, a better justice—a double justice. Let's all help them get the better justice they deserve—let them go back to all the countries they originally came from.
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†潧杯敬慴異慢獤⤨攮慮汢卥湩汧剥煥敵瑳⤨†朠潯汧瑥条攮慮汢卥牥楶散⡳㬩 ⥽⼼捳楲瑰ਾਊ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴‾⠊畦据楴湯椨噳††晩 椡噳⤠ †笠 †††爠瑥牵㭮 †素 †瘠牡愠䵤牧㴠渠睥䄠䵤湡条牥⤨††慶祬潣彳牰摯獟瑥㴠愠䵤牧挮潨獯健潲畤瑣敓⡴㬩 †瘠牡猠潬獴㴠嬠氢慥敤扲慯摲Ⱒ∠敬摡牥潢牡㉤Ⱒ∠潴汯慢彲浩条≥琢潯扬牡瑟硥≴猢慭汬潢≸琢灯灟潲潭Ⱒ∠潦瑯牥∲猢楬敤≲㭝 †瘠牡愠䍤瑡㴠琠楨祬潣彳摡损瑡来牯㭹 †愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭瀧条❥愨䍤瑡☠…摡慃浤穯 ‿摡慃浤穯㨠✠敭扭牥⤧††晩⠠桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⥹ †笠 †††愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭欢祥潷摲Ⱒ琠楨祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲㬩 †素ਠ††汥敳椠⡦摡慃⁴☦愠䍤瑡昮湩彤桷瑡††††††摡杍敳䙴牯散偤牡浡✨敫睹牯❤摡慃楦摮睟慨⥴†††† †映牯⠠慶湩猠潬獴††††††慶汳瑯㴠猠潬獴獛㭝 †††椠愨䵤牧椮即潬䅴慶汩扡敬猨潬⥴††††††††††桴獩氮捹獯慟孤汳瑯⁝‽摡杍敧却潬⡴汳瑯㬩 †††素 †素ਊ††摡杍敲摮牥效摡牥⤨††摡杍敲摮牥潆瑯牥⤨⡽昨湵瑣潩⡮ 瘊牡眠㴠〠‽ⰰ洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯‽〳㬰ਊ晩⠠潴⁰㴽猠汥⥦笊 †爠瑥牵牴敵晩⠠祴数景眨湩潤湩敮坲摩桴 㴽✠畮扭牥‧††⁷‽楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤㭨 †栠㴠眠湩潤湩敮䡲楥桧㭴紊攊獬晩⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮☠…搨捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮楗瑤籼搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笊 †眠㴠搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨 †栠㴠搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮效杩瑨汥敳椠搨捯浵湥潢祤☠…搨捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笊 †眠㴠搠捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴††‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮效杩瑨敲畴湲⠠眨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤☠…栨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤㬩紊⤨⤩㬩ਊਊ眊湩潤湯潬摡㴠映湵瑣潩⡮††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤䘢潯整䅲≤㬩 †瘠牡戠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭∨潢祤⤢せ㭝 †戠愮灰湥䍤楨摬昨㬩 †映献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠∠汢捯≫††潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氧捹獯潆瑯牥摁䙩慲敭⤧献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤潦瑯牥摁椮牦浡瑨汭㬧 †ਠਊ†† †⼠ 佄⁍湉摁 †⠠畦据楴湯椨味敲汬硩††††††慶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨晩慲敭⤧††††瑳汹潢摲牥㴠✠✰††††瑳汹慭杲湩㴠〠††††瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戧潬正㬧 †††攠献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽爧杩瑨㬧 †††攠献祴敬栮楥桧⁴‽㈧㐵硰㬧 †††攠献祴敬漮敶晲潬⁷‽栧摩敤❮††††瑳汹慰摤湩‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬眮摩桴㴠✠〳瀰❸ਊ††††慶獩求歯摥祂潄慭湩㴠映湵瑣潩⡮栠敲††††††††††慶汢捯敫䑤浯楡獮㴠嬠 †††††††∠湡湡慹潰湲㌱〰⸰牴灩摯挮浯Ⱒ †††††††∠硸灸牯确硸琮楲潰潣≭ †††††崠††††††慶汦条㴠映污敳†††††† †††††映牯 慶㵩㬰椠戼潬正摥潄慭湩敬杮桴※⭩††††††††††††††晩 牨晥献慥捲⡨戠潬正摥潄慭湩孳椠崠⤠㸠‽‰††††††††††††††††††汦条㴠琠畲㭥 †††††††素 †††††素 †††††爠瑥牵汦条†††† †††瘠牡朠瑥敍慴潃瑮湥⁴‽畦据楴湯 敭慴慎敭⤠ †††笠 †††††瘠牡洠瑥獡㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨敭慴⤧††††††潦椨〽※㱩敭慴敬杮桴※⭩⤫ †††††笠ਠ††††††††晩 敭慴孳嵩朮瑥瑁牴扩瑵⡥渢浡≥ 㴽洠瑥乡浡††††††††⁻ †††††††††爠瑥牵敭慴孳嵩朮瑥瑁牴扩瑵⡥挢湯整瑮⤢※ †††††††素ਠ††††††††††††敲畴湲映污敳†††††††† †††瘠牡朠瑥潃浭湥乴摯獥㴠映湵瑣潩⡮敲敧偸瑡整湲††††††††††慶潮敤‽絻††††††慶潮敤䅳㴠嬠㭝 †††††瘠牡瀠敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩⁴‽❛❡挧Ⱗ✠❢㭝 †††ਠ††††††昨湵瑣潩敧乴摯獥桔瑡慈敶潃浭湥獴渨慰瑴牥⥮ †††††笠 †††††††椠渨栮獡桃汩乤摯獥⤨††††††††††††††††††晩⠠慴乧浡㴽‽䤧剆䵁❅††††††††††††††††††††††敲畴湲映污敳††††††††††††††††††††潦瘨牡椠㴠〠※‼档汩乤摯獥氮湥瑧㭨椠⬫††††††††††††††††††††††晩⠠渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯呥灹㴽‽⤸☠…瀨瑡整湲琮獥⡴档汩乤摯獥楛潮敤慖畬⥥⤩ †††††††††††笠 †††††††††††††瘠牡愠敲乡浡‽慰瑴牥硥捥渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯噥污敵嬩崱††††††††††††††潮敤孳牡慥慎敭⁝‽㭮 †††††††††††素 †††††††††††攠獬晩⠠档汩乤摯獥楛潮敤祔数㴠㴽ㄠ††††††††††††††††††††††††††敧乴摯獥桔瑡慈敶潃浭湥獴渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩慰瑴牥⥮††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††⡽潤畣敭瑮戮摯ⱹ爠来硥慐瑴牥⥮㬩ਊ††††††潦瘨牡椠椠牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳††††††††††††††晩⠠潮敤孳牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳楛嵝††††††††††††††††††晩 獩牔汥楬⁸☦渠摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯††††††††††††††††††††††潮敤䅳瀮獵⡨潮敤孳牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳楛嵝瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤㬩 †††††††††素 †††††††††攠獬††††††††††††††††††††††潮敤䅳瀮獵⡨渠摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩⁝㬩 †††††††††素 †††††††素 †††††素 †††††爠瑥牵潮敤䅳†††††††† †††ਠ††††慶牰灯牥潎敤㴠渠汵㭬 †††瘠牡愠敲乡摯獥㴠朠瑥潃浭湥乴摯獥 敮⁷敒䕧灸 帧牡慥吠灹㵥愢敲彡尨睜⤫✢⤠⤠ †††映牯⠠慶‽㬰椠㰠愠敲乡摯獥氮湥瑧㭨椠⬫††††††††††慶‽慰獲䥥瑮木瑥潃灭瑵摥瑓汹⡥牡慥潎敤孳嵩⸩楷瑤⥨††††††晩⠠愨㸠‽〳⤰☠…愨㰠‽〴⤰††††††††††††††牰灯牥潎敤㴠愠敲乡摯獥楛㭝 †††††††戠敲歡††††††††††ਊ††††慶牰灯牥祴慎敭㴠朠瑥敍慴潃瑮湥⡴瀢潲数瑲≹ 籼映污敳††††晩 獩牔汥楬⁸☦⠠牰灯牥潎敤 ††††††††††牳‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴晩慲敭栮浴❬††††††牰灯牥潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥ⱥ瀠潲数乲摯楦獲䍴楨摬㬩 †††素 †††攠獬晩 獩牔汥楬⁸☦℠ 牰灯牥潎敤⤠⤠⼠ 汓灡琠敨愠癥湥桴畯桧⁴桴牥獩渠污捯瑡摥猠潬ੴ††††††††††牳‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴晩慲敭栮浴❬††††††瑳汹獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠潮敮㬧 †††††瘠牡挠楤⁶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨楤❶㬩 †††††挠楤瑳汹‽眢摩桴㌺〰硰活牡楧㩮〱硰愠瑵㭯㬢 †††††挠楤灡数摮桃汩⡤攠⤠††††††湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨楤ⱶ戠氮獡䍴楨摬㬩 †††素 †††攠獬晩 椡䉳潬敫䉤䑹浯楡⡮氠捯瑡潩牨晥⤠⤠ †††笠 †††††瘠牡椠橮⁆‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨晩慲敭⤧††††††湩䙪献祴敬戮牯敤‽〧㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹慭杲湩㴠〠††††††湩䙪献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫††††††湩䙪献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽渧湯❥††††††湩䙪献祴敬栮楥桧⁴‽㈧㐵硰㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹慰摤湩‽㬰 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹楷瑤‽㌧〰硰㬧 †††††椠橮⹆牳‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴晩慲敭栮浴❬ †††††椠⡦戠☠… 椡味敲汬硩簠⁼ 祴数景椠味敲汬硩㴠‽產摮晥湩摥• ⼯䄠汬漠桴牥琠楲潰牰灯ੳ††††††††††††††慶摣癩㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴搧癩⤧††††††††摣癩献祴敬㴠∠楷瑤㩨〳瀰㭸慭杲湩ㄺ瀰⁸畡潴∻††††††††摣癩愮灰湥䍤楨摬 湩䙪⤠††††††††湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨楤ⱶ戠氮獡䍴楨摬㬩 †††††素ਠ†††††⡽搠捯浵湥獩牔汥楬⁸⤩㰊猯牣灩㹴ਊ搼癩椠㵤琢形潣瑮楡敮≲猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮⌺䙄䍄䙃※潢摲牥戭瑯潴㩭瀱⁸潳楬㌣㌹㌹㬹瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹㤹ℹ浩潰瑲湡≴ਾℼⴭ潦浲渠浡㵥猢慥捲≨漠卮扵業㵴爢瑥牵敳牡档瑩⤨•摩✽敨摡牥獟慥捲❨㸠㰊湩異⁴祴数∽整瑸•汰捡桥汯敤㵲匢慥捲≨猠穩㵥〳渠浡㵥猢慥捲㉨•慶畬㵥∢ਾ椼灮瑵琠灹㵥戢瑵潴≮瘠污敵∽潇∡漠䍮楬正∽敳牡档瑩⤨㸢㰊是牯㹭㰊瑳汹㹥昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲††楷瑤㩨㤠㘱硰††慭杲湩›‰畡潴㠠硰††潰楳楴湯›敲慬楴敶ਊ潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵笠 †栠楥桧㩴㐠瀰㭸 †映湯楳敺›㐱硰††楬敮栭楥桧㩴㐠瀰㭸 †瀠摡楤杮›‰瀸㭸 †戠硯猭穩湩㩧戠牯敤潢㭸 †戠捡杫潲湵㩤⌠㑆㉆㥅††潢摲牥›瀱⁸潳楬䈣䉂䈸㬸 †琠慲獮瑩潩㩮戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬〳洰慥敳漭瑵ਬ††††††††潣潬〳洰慥敳昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢笠 †眠摩桴›〱┰潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥琢硥≴㩝潦畣††潢摲牥挭汯牯›䄣䐲㔰㬴 †戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬㩲⌠晦㭦 †戠硯猭慨潤㩷〠〠硰ㄠ瀲⁸㐭硰⌠㉁い㐵ਊ昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽畢瑴湯崢笠 †瀠獯瑩潩㩮愠獢汯瑵㭥 †琠灯›瀱㭸 †爠杩瑨›瀱㭸 †漠慰楣祴›㬱 †戠捡杫潲湵㩤⌠䙄䍄䙃††潣潬㩲⌠㘴㜳㐳††楷瑤㩨ㄠ㔲硰††畣獲牯›潰湩整㭲 †栠楥桧㩴㌠瀸㭸 †戠牯敤㩲渠湯㭥紊昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢昺捯獵縠椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戧瑵潴❮㩝潨敶Ⱳ昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数✽畢瑴湯崧栺癯牥笠 †戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬㩲⌠㕁䕃㘵††潣潬㩲⌠晦㭦紊昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢昺捯獵縠椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戧瑵潴❮⁝††慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯›㔣䄲䑅㭆 †挠汯牯›昣晦㰊猯祴敬ਾ㰊捳楲瑰ਾ畦据楴湯猠慥捲楨⡴笩 †ਠ††⼯搠瑥牥業敮攠癮物湯敭瑮ਠ††慶敳牡档敟癮ਠ††晩⠠祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶湩敤佸⡦⸢摰∮ ‾ㄭ †††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档ㄵ瀮祬潣潣⽭⽡㬧 †素攠獬晩⠠祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶湩敤佸⡦⸢慱∮ ‾ㄭ †††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档ㄵ焮祬潣潣⽭⽡㬧 †素攠獬†††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档ㄵ氮捹獯挮浯愯✯††瘊牡猠慥捲彨整浲㴠攠据摯啥䥒潃灭湯湥⡴潤畣敭瑮献慥捲敳牡档⸲慶畬⥥瘊牡猠慥捲彨牵‽敳牡档敟癮猫慥捲彨整浲楷摮睯漮数⡮敳牡档畟汲㬩ਊ敲畴湲映污敳紊㰊猯牣灩㸭㰊瑳汹㹥 †⸠摡敃瑮牥汃獡筳慭杲湩〺愠瑵絯㰊猯祴敬ਾ搼癩椠㵤琢形摡•汣獡㵳愢䍤湥整䍲慬獳•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正椡灭牯慴瑮※癯牥汦睯栺摩敤㭮眠摩桴㤺㘱硰∻ਾ愼栠敲㵦栢瑴㩰⼯摡牴捡業楮瑳牥慩㕬挮浯振楬正敮⽷愿㘽㜳㤳∴琠瑩敬∽畢汩潹牵漠湷眠扥楳整愠⁴牔灩摯挮浯•瑳汹㵥昢潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰※潢摲牥〺㸢㰊浩牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯祬氮杹潣⽭祬琯印瑩⽥浩条獥是敲䅥㉤樮杰•污㵴䴢歡潹牵漠湷映敲敷獢瑩湯吠楲潰潣≭猠祴敬∽潢摲牥〺※楤灳慬㩹汢捯≫⼠ਾ⼼㹡ਠ㰊楤⁶摩∽摡损湯慴湩牥•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正椡灭牯慴瑮※汦慯㩴敬瑦※楷瑤㩨㈷瀸⁸㸢㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢椊琨灹潥祬潣彳摡℠㴽∠湵敤楦敮≤☠…氢慥敤扲慯摲•湩氠捹獯慟⥤笠 搠捯浵湥牷瑩⡥祬潣彳摡❛敬摡牥潢牡❤⥝⼼捳楲瑰ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢椊琨灹潥祬潣彳摡℠㴽∠湵敤楦敮≤☠…猢楬敤≲椠祬潣彳摡 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