Any advertisements appearing above this line are inserted by "tripod", please IGNORE them
by Prof. Mordochai ben-Tziyyon, Universitah Ha'ivrit, Y'rushalayim
None of the prophets in the Scriptures ever foretold the coming of a "messiah". But they did prophesy that one day God will give back to Yisraél what He took away from us in the year 586BCE: our Temple, our sovereignty and independence, and our Monarchy. There are numerous prophecies about the king who will reign in the happy days when this comes about. According to the prophets, he will be a deeply religious man, one of great humility (so humble in fact that he will shun all publicity and won't even make speeches in public—Y'shayahu 42:2, "he will not shout, and he will not raise his voice nor let it be heard outdoors"). He will reunite Yisraél, bringing back all those who are scattered in exile all over the World, and he will reign over us in justice and righteousness, encouraging the full observance of the Torah's laws and ensuring that those laws are kept. All other nations on Earth and their rulers will recognise his authority, and all strife and fighting in the World will end: "The Temple Mount will be the chief of all hills and all the nations will stream to it... many nations will set out saying 'Come, let's go up to Adonai's mountain, to the Temple of Yisraél's God; He will teach us His ways and we will follow His paths'—because then teaching will emanate from Tziyyon [and] Adonai's words from Y'rushalayim... [the king-messiah] will arbitrate between the nations and settle all their disputes, and they will beat their swords into scythes and their spears into shears—never again will any nation take up arms against another and no-one will even study military tactics any more" (Y'shayahu 2:2-4, Michah 4:1-3).
That king, we are assured, will satisfy all the requirements of Torah Law, one of which is that he must be the son of a man who is the son of a man who was the son of a man who was... who was the son of King David's son Sh'lomoh. At his coronation he will doubtless be "crowned" in the same manner as the ancient Hebrew kings, that is, the shemen mish'hat kodesh (the oil of anointment of holiness, which Mosheh was commanded to make personally according to the formula given in Sh'mot 30:22-33) will be smeared on him, so he will be a מָשִׁיחַ (a mashiyaḥ or "messiah") in the most literal sense, and because of this he has come to be known as the "king-messiah" in Hebrew parlance and literature.
The great 12th century Hebrew scholar R' Mosheh ben Maimon, who produced the first systematic and structured encyclopædia of Hebrew Law (the Mishneh Torah) devotes the last two chapters of the volume dealing with "Kings and their Wars" to this future king, the "king-messiah". The translation that follows is mostly the work of my late cousin, Dr B'tzalel Barzillai, although I have made a few minor corrections to it and added a few additional comments of my own; the Hebrew text may be accessed by clicking the chapter and paragraph numbers.
1. In the future the King-Messiah will come to power: he will revive the Davidic Dynasty and restore it to its former sovereignty, and he will rebuild the Temple and gather in all the scattered ones of Yisraél. In his time, all the Laws will be reinstated as they were in ancient times—the sacrificial ceremonials will be restored, and the cycles of "fallow" (sh'mittah) years and yovél years will again be observed as they are written in the Torah.
2. Anyone who does not believe in him and does not anticipate his coming rejects the whole of the Torah and also our Teacher Mosheh, not just the remainder of the Prophets, for the Torah itself testifies to his coming, in these verses: "Then, Adonai your God will reverse your captivity and have mercy on you; He will gather you back in.... even if your scattered ones will be at the ends of the heavens, Adonai your God will gather you back in from there too.... Adonai your God will bring you back to the land that your ancestors possessed...." (D'varim 30:3-5). These things that are written explicitly in the Torah encapsulate everything that the Prophets said on this topic.
3. There is also reference to the King-Messiah in the Bil'am passage, where Bil'am prophesies about two "Messiahs"—the first Messiah he speaks about is David who rescued Yisraél from their enemies, and the other is the one who will arise from among David's descendants and who will rescue Yisraél in the Last Times.
4. In that passage, Bil'am says: "I see him, but not now; I look upon him, but he is not close; a star is stepping out from Ya'akov and a sceptre is arising from Yisraél... he will crush the nobles of Mo'av and he will undermine all of Shet's descendants; Edom will be his conquest, and his enemy, Sé'ir, will be crushed..." (B'midbar 24:17-18).
5. Furthermore, in connection with the "Refuge Cities", the Torah says: "...when God will widen your borders... you will add to these six an additional three cities..." (D'varim 19:8-9), but this never actually occurred at any time in our history; however, we can be sure that God did not give us this commandment for nothing, so we anticipate that it will be implemented in the time of the King-Messiah. There is no need to cite proof for this from the writings of the Prophets because all of their Books are full of references to it.
6. You should not think that the King-Messiah will have to perform miracles and wondrous acts, or cause new phenomena to occur in the World such as bringing the dead back to life or other similar things. We can see that this is not so, because R' Akiva, who was one of the greatest scholars of the Mishnah period became King ben Kuziva's armour-bearer and used to say that he was the King-Messiah. Indeed, he and all the other Rabbis of his generation thought that ben Kuziva was the King-Messiah, but when he was killed because of his sinfulness, they realised that he had not been the King-Messiah; however, they had never expected him to perform miracles or wondrous acts.
7. The central principle is that the Torah, with all its Laws and Decrees, is permanent and eternal, and we may neither add to them nor subtract from them: anyone who tries to add anything to the Torah or remove anything from it, or to interpret any of its Laws in a manner that is not consistent with the written text—such a person is truly wicked and a heretic.
8. If one day a king arises from the House of David, who is learned in the Torah and observes all the commandments in the same way that his ancestor David did, just as they are commanded in the Torah (Written and Oral), who inspires all Yisraél to follow the Torah and takes steps to prevent violations of it, and who wages Adonai's Wars—this will be a strong indication that he is the King-Messiah; and if he succeeds in all of this and also rebuilds the Temple on its ancient site and gathers all the scattered ones of Yisraél together again, then we will know that he really is the King-Messiah. This one will bring harmony to the World and cause all to serve Adonai together, as it is written: "...for then I shall turn all the nations back to speaking the 'pure language' [i.e. Hebrew], so that they will all proclaim Adonai's Fame and serve Him with a single purpose" (Tz'fanyah 3:9).
9. But if he does not succeed in accomplishing all these things, or if he is killed, then for sure he is not the one promised by the Torah and he should just be considered like any of the other legitimate kings of the Davidic dynasty who lived and died; and we may conclude that God caused him to arise only to test people's faith, as it is written: "...even some of the wise will err in their attempts to clarify the predictions, to explain them and to interpret them... until the End, because its time is yet to be fixed" (Daniyyél 11:35).
10. As for Yéshu the Notz'ri ["man from Notzrat"], who claimed to be the King-Messiah and was sentenced to death by the Sanhedrin [Hebrew Supreme Court] and executed—Daniyyél had already prophesied about him: "...sons of rebels among your own people will raise themselves and try to establish a 'vision'—but they will stumble" (Daniyyél 11:14). Could there be any greater deception than christianity? All the Prophets foretold that the King-Messiah will redeem and rehabilitate Yisraél, will gather together again the scattered ones and strengthen their observance of the commandments—but that one brought about only the slaughter of Yisraél by the sword and the dispersal and persecution of the remnant, tried to alter the Torah, and caused most of the World to be lured into the service of an idol instead of Adonai.
11. A human being is not able to comprehend the Creator of the World's intentions, for our ways are not like His ways and our thoughts are not like His thoughts (compare Y'shayahu 55:8). In the event, though, all the words of Yéshu the Notz'ri and of that Yishma'elite who arose after him [Muhammad] have only served to prepare the way for the arrival of the King-Messiah, leading the whole World to serve Adonai together, as it is written: "...for then I shall turn all the nations back to speaking the 'pure language' [i.e. Hebrew], so that they will all proclaim Adonai's Fame and serve Him with a single purpose" (Tz'fanyah 3:9).
12. How can that be?—Consider this: the whole World is already filled with talk about a "Messiah", and about the Torah, and about the Commandments. So it has come about that these concepts have been spread to the furthest parts of the World and among even the pagan, idolatrous nations, who right now are discussing these topics and the Torah's commandments. Some of them [i.e. christians] say that the commandments were true, but have now been abolished and were never intended to remain in force for ever, while others [i.e. Muslims] say that they contain hidden mysteries and are not to be interpreted literally, but that a "messiah" [i.e. Muhammad] already came and revealed these secrets.
13. However, when the true King-Messiah arises, and he succeeds in becoming exalted and uplifted, right away they will all realise their mistake and they will then understand that the teaching passed down to them from their ancestors was false, and that their prophets and their ancestors misled them (compare Yirm'yahu 16:19).
1. One should not think that any aspect of Nature will change in the Era of King-Messiah, or that there will be any new features in the behaviour of the physical Universe. The World will continue to function just as it does now. Although Y'shayahu states "The wolf will live at peace with the lamb and the leopard will lie down with the young goat" (Y'shayahu 11:6), these words are just metaphors and allegories: they mean that Yisraél will live in safety among the wicked gentiles who are compared to wolves and leopards, as for example in the verse "A wolf of the deserts attacks them, a leopard prowls through their cities" (Yirm'yahu 5:6). When those times come, all will return to the true faith and will no longer pillage or destroy; instead, they will eat only that which is permitted, at peace with Yisraél, as it is written "...lions will eat straw like oxen" (Y'shayahu 11:7).
2. In the same way, the other prophecies about the King-Messiah of a similar nature are also analogies: in the Era of the King-Messiah, everyone will realize what was meant by these metaphors and what they were intended to convey. The Rabbis taught: "There will be no difference between the present time and the Era of the King-Messiah except only that the supremacy of the gentile kingdoms will be ended" [B'rachot 34b; Shabbat 63a, 151b; P'saḥim 68a; San'hed'rin 91b, 99a]....
3. It appears from the plain meaning of the Prophets' words that the War of Gog and Magog (Y'ḥezkel, ch. 38) will take place at the beginning of the Messianic Era and, before this War, a Prophet will arise to correct Yisraél's behaviour and to prepare their hearts for the final redemption, as it is written: "See, I am sending the Prophet Éliyyahu back to you before the arrival of Adonai's great and awesome Day" (Mal'achi 3:23). He will not come to declare the pure impure or to declare the impure pure; neither will he come to disqualify the lineage of those thought to be of flawless descent, or to validate lineage which is thought to be imperfect. He will come to bring harmony to the World; as the prophecy just stated continues "...he will turn the hearts of fathers with their children back [to God]" (ibid., 3:24).
4. Some of the Rabbis said that Éliyyahu will appear even before the arrival of the King-Messiah; but no-one can know how these or any other similar matters will occur until they actually happen because they are are not specified explicitly in the words of the Prophets, and even the Rabbis had no established tradition regarding these matters, other than what the verses hint—this is why there are differences of opinion about these issues. In any case, the sequence of these events and their precise details are not part of the basic principles of our faith.
5. A person should not devote too much time to the study of the haggadot and the midrashim that deal with these and similar topics, or consider them of any great importance, because they will not bring him to the respect or the love of God. For the same reason, one should not waste his time trying to calculate the appointed time of the King-Messiah's coming: the Rabbis said "...the souls of those who attempt to calculate the time of King-Messiah's coming deserve to perish!" [Sanhedrin 97b]. Instead, one should simply await his coming, believing only in the general principles of the topic, as just explained.
6. In the time of the King-Messiah, when his kingdom has been secured and all of Yisraél has gathered around him, every person's pedigree will be established by him through the prophetic insight that he will be imbued with, as it is written "...he will sit refining and purifying [silver]..." (Mal'achi 3:3). He will purify the pedigree of the L'viyim first, stating "this one is a Kohén by pedigree" or "this one is a Lévi by pedigree", and any who are not designated in this way will be allocated the status of ordinary Yisraélite. This is what is meant by the verse "The Tir'shata [i.e. N'ḥemyah] decreed that [none of them should eat any of the kod'shei kodashim] until such time as a Chief Kohén arises who wears the Urim v'Tummim" (Ez'ra 2:63)—from this we can see that the pedigrees of those who can only be presumed at present will be determined and made known through prophetic insight in his time. He will define the lineage of the other Yisraélites according to their tribe alone [not by individual families], that is, he will declare "this one is from such-and-such tribe" and "that one is from such-and-such tribe". But he will not declare that a person who is presumed to be legitimate is a mamzer or a slave, following the legal principle that, once a family has been emancipated, it remains so [even if it is later found that it was emancipated in error].
7. The Rabbis and the Prophets did not long for the Messianic Age in order for Yisraél to rule over the whole World, or to dominate all the gentiles, or so that the other nations should honour them, or so they would be able to to feast, to drink and to celebrate. Their only desire was for Yisraél to be free to devote themselves to the Torah and its wisdom, without anyone to persecute or disturb them, so they would become worthy of life in the World to Come, as I explained in the volume dealing with T'shuvah.
8. In that time there will be neither famine nor war, envy nor competition: goodness will flow in abundance and all delights will be as widespread as dust. The occupation of the entire World will be solely given over to knowing Adonai, and Yisraél will become great sages, understanding all the great mysteries. They will attain a knowledge of their Creator to the greatest extent possible for a human being; as it is written: "...for the World will be as full of the knowledge of Adonai as the water covering the sea-bed." (Y'shayahu 11:9).
Any advertisements appearing below this line are inserted by "tripod", please IGNORE them
ℼⴭ∧⼼楴汴㹥⼼敨摡ⴾ㸭㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢⼊伯湷牥光瘊牡张潟煩灟瑣㴠㔠㬰椊⡦张潟煩灟瑣㴾〱‰籼䴠瑡汦潯⡲慍桴爮湡潤⡭⨩〱⼰ㄨ〰弭潟煩灟瑣⤩㸠〠⤠笠瘊牡张楯煱㴠张楯煱簠⁼嵛潟煩異桳嬨漧煩慟摤慐敧牂湡❤✬祌潣❳⥝潟煩異桳嬨漧煩慟摤慐敧慃❴✬湉整湲瑥㸠圠扥楳整❳⥝潟煩異桳嬨漧煩慟摤慐敧楌敦祣汣❥✬湉整摮崧㬩弊楯煱瀮獵⡨❛楯影潤慔❧⥝昨湵瑣潩⡮ 慶楯ⁱ‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨捳楲瑰⤧※楯祴数㴠✠整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴※楯獡湹‽牴敵楯牳‽潤畣敭瑮氮捯瑡潩牰瑯捯汯⬠✠⼯硰漮湷牥煩渮瑥猯慴⽳⽳祬潣湳樮❳慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥猧牣灩❴嬩崰※慰敲瑮潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥楯ⱱ猠㬩紊⠩㬩紊⼊䜯潯汧湁污瑹捩ੳ慶束煡㴠张慧ⁱ籼嬠㭝弊慧異桳嬨弧敳䅴捣畯瑮Ⱗ唧ⵁㄲ〴㘲㔹ㄭ✹⥝束煡瀮獵⡨❛獟瑥潄慭湩慎敭Ⱗ琧楲潰潣❭⥝束煡瀮獵⡨❛獟瑥畃瑳浯慖❲ㄬ✬敭扭牥湟浡❥✬潭摲捯慨❩㌬⥝束煡瀮獵⡨❛瑟慲正慐敧楶睥崧㬩⠊畦据楴湯⤨笠瘊牡朠‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨捳楲瑰⤧※慧琮灹‽琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬧朠獡湹‽牴敵慧献捲㴠⠠栧瑴獰✺㴠‽潤畣敭瑮氮捯瑡潩牰瑯捯汯㼠✠瑨灴㩳⼯獳❬㨠✠瑨灴⼺眯睷⤧⬠✠朮潯汧ⵥ湡污瑹捩潣⽭慧樮❳慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥猧牣灩❴嬩崰※慰敲瑮潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥慧⥳⥽⤨⼯祌潣湉瑩昊湵瑣潩敧剴晥牥敲⡲ 慶污㵬琠楨潤畣敭瑮挮潯楫㭥椊愨汬㴽✠⤧爠瑥牵慦獬㭥瘊牡挠潯楫彥慮敭㴠✠䕒䕆剒剅✽慶瑳牡⁴‽污慬瑳湉敤佸⡦潣歯敩湟浡⥥晩⠠瑳牡⁴㴽ⴠ⤱爠瑥牵慦獬㭥猊慴瑲⬠‽潣歯敩湟浡敬杮桴慶湥‽污湩敤佸⡦㬧Ⱗ猠慴瑲㬩椊攨摮㴠‽ㄭ 湥‽污敬杮桴敲畴湲愠汬献扵瑳楲杮猨慴瑲湥⥤畦据楴湯朠瑥畑牥⡹ 慶晲‽敧剴晥牥敲⡲㬩椊爨牦㴠‽✧ 敲畴湲映污敳慶ⁱ‽硥牴捡兴敵祲爨牦礧桡潯挮浯Ⱗ✠㵰⤧晩⠠⥱爠瑥牵㭱焊㴠攠瑸慲瑣畑牥⡹晲Ⱳ✠Ⱗ✠㵱⤧敲畴湲焠㼠焠㨠∠㬢紊昊湵瑣潩硥牴捡兴敵祲昨汵ⱬ猠瑩ⱥ焠灟牡浡 慶瑳牡⁴‽畦汬氮獡䥴摮硥晏猨瑩⥥晩⠠瑳牡⁴㴽ⴠ⤱爠瑥牵慦獬㭥猊慴瑲㴠映汵慬瑳湉敤佸⡦影慰慲⥭晩⠠瑳牡⁴㴽ⴠ⤱爠瑥牵慦獬㭥猊慴瑲⬠‽影慰慲敬杮桴慶湥‽畦汬椮摮硥晏✨✦瑳牡⥴晩⠠湥㴽ⴠ⤱攠摮㴠映汵敬杮桴敲畴湲甠敮捳灡⡥畦汬献扵瑳楲杮猨慴瑲湥⥤⸩灳楬⡴•⤢樮楯⡮⬢⤢畦据楴湯朠湥牥瑡䡥敲⡦瑡条整灭慬整笩愊慴牨晥琽浥汰瑡敲汰捡⡥弧奍剕彌Ⱗ眠湩潤潬慣楴湯栮敲敲汰捡⡥栧瑴㩰⼯Ⱗ✠⤧⸩敲汰捡⡥弧奍䥔䱔彅Ⱗ䌧敨正㈥漰瑵㈥琰楨╳〲牔灩摯㈥䴰浥敢╲〲楳整✡㬩ਠ慶祬潣彳摡㴠䄠牲祡⤨慶祬潣彳湯潬摡瑟浩牥慶浣牟汯‽氢癩≥慶浣桟獯⁴‽琢楲潰祬潣潣≭慶浣瑟硡摩㴠∠洯浥敢敲扭摥敤≤慶牴灩摯浟浥敢彲慮敭㴠∠潭摲捯慨≩慶牴灩摯浟浥敢彲慰敧㴠∠潭摲捯慨⽩慭桳祩桡栮浴≬慶牴灩摯牟瑡湩獧桟獡‽ㄢ〵㌳〳ㄱ㨲㐴㜹攰ㅣ搲㘳㡢㠰㝤㐹愷㍣愷ぢ戵㝢㬢ਊ慶祬潣彳摡损瑡来牯⁹‽≻浤穯㨢猢捯敩祴⽜楨瑳牯≹∬湯慴杲瑥㨢☢䅃㵔慦業祬㈥愰摮㈥氰晩獥祴敬≳∬楦摮睟慨≴∺瑓摵⁹桔楂汢≥㭽ਊ慶祬潣彳摡牟浥瑯彥摡牤㴠∠〲⸹〲⸲㐲⸴∹慶祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶‽眢睷琮楲潰祬潣潣≭慶祬潣彳摡瑟慲正獟慭汬㴠∠瑨灴⼺洯浥敢獲琮楲潰潣⽭摡⽭浩⽧潣浭湯漯彴浳污晬慲敭朮晩爿湡㵤㔹㤵㔳㬢瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤牴捡彫敳癲摥㴠∠瑨灴⼺洯浥敢獲琮楲潰潣⽭摡⽭浩⽧潣浭湯漯彴摡敳癲摥朮晩爿湡㵤㔹㤵㔳㬢瘊牡氠捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⁹‽敧兴敵祲⤨⼼捳楲瑰ਾ㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰•牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯捳楲瑰祬潣潣⽭慣浴湡椯楮獪㸢⼼捳楲瑰ਾ㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸧 慶潧杯敬慴‽潧杯敬慴籼笠㭽 潧杯敬慴浣‽潧杯敬慴浣籼嬠㭝 昨湵瑣潩⡮ †瘠牡朠摡‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨捳楲瑰⤧†朠摡獡湹‽牴敵†朠摡祴数㴠✠整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴†瘠牡甠敳卓⁌‽栧瑴獰✺㴠‽潤畣敭瑮氮捯瑡潩牰瑯捯汯†朠摡牳‽用敳卓⁌‿栧瑴獰✺㨠✠瑨灴✺ ਫ††✠⼯睷潧杯敬慴獧牥楶散潣⽭慴⽧獪术瑰樮❳†瘠牡渠摯‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥猧牣灩❴嬩崰†渠摯慰敲瑮潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥慧獤潮敤㬩 ⥽⤨⼼捳楲瑰ਾ㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸧 潧杯敬慴浣異桳昨湵瑣潩⡮ †朠潯汧瑥条搮晥湩卥潬⡴⼧㔹㘹㔳㘹启䥒㍟〰㉘〵摟灦Ⱗ嬠〳ⰰ㈠〵ⱝ✠楤灧摡ㄭ㔴㈰㐰㔱ㄹ㘲〭⤧愮摤敓癲捩⡥潧杯敬慴異慢獤⤨㬩 †潧杯敬慴敤楦敮汓瑯✨㤯㤵㌶㤵⼶剔彉扡癯彥㈷砸〹摟灦Ⱗ嬠㈷ⰸ㤠崰搧癩札瑰愭ⵤ㐱〵〲ㄴ㤵㈱ⴶ✱⸩摡卤牥楶散木潯汧瑥条瀮扵摡⡳⤩†朠潯汧瑥条搮晥湩卥潬⡴⼧㔹㘹㔳㘹启䥒扟汥睯㝟㠲㥸弰晤❰㝛㠲〹ⱝ✠楤灧摡ㄭ㔴㈰㐰㔱ㄹ㘲㈭⤧愮摤敓癲捩⡥潧杯敬慴異慢獤⤨㬩 †潧杯敬慴異慢獤⤨攮慮汢卥湩汧剥煥敵瑳⤨†朠潯汧瑥条攮慮汢卥牥楶散⡳㬩 ⥽⼼捳楲瑰ਾਊ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴‾⠊畦据楴湯椨噳††晩 椡噳⤠ †笠 †††爠瑥牵㭮 †素 †瘠牡愠䵤牧㴠渠睥䄠䵤湡条牥⤨††慶祬潣彳牰摯獟瑥㴠愠䵤牧挮潨獯健潲畤瑣敓⡴㬩 †瘠牡猠潬獴㴠嬠氢慥敤扲慯摲Ⱒ∠敬摡牥潢牡㉤Ⱒ∠潴汯慢彲浩条≥琢潯扬牡瑟硥≴猢慭汬潢≸琢灯灟潲潭Ⱒ∠潦瑯牥∲猢楬敤≲㭝 †瘠牡愠䍤瑡㴠琠楨祬潣彳摡损瑡来牯㭹 †愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭瀧条❥愨䍤瑡☠…摡慃浤穯 ‿摡慃浤穯㨠✠敭扭牥⤧††晩⠠桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⥹ †笠 †††愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭欢祥潷摲Ⱒ琠楨祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲㬩 †素ਠ††汥敳椠⡦摡慃⁴☦愠䍤瑡昮湩彤桷瑡††††††摡杍敳䙴牯散偤牡浡✨敫睹牯❤摡慃楦摮睟慨⥴†††† †映牯⠠慶湩猠潬獴††††††慶汳瑯㴠猠潬獴獛㭝 †††椠愨䵤牧椮即潬䅴慶汩扡敬猨潬⥴††††††††††桴獩氮捹獯慟孤汳瑯⁝‽摡杍敧却潬⡴汳瑯㬩 †††素 †素ਊ††摡杍敲摮牥效摡牥⤨††摡杍敲摮牥潆瑯牥⤨⡽昨湵瑣潩⡮ 瘊牡眠㴠〠‽ⰰ洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯‽〳㬰ਊ晩⠠潴⁰㴽猠汥⥦笊 †爠瑥牵牴敵晩⠠祴数景眨湩潤湩敮坲摩桴 㴽✠畮扭牥‧††⁷‽楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤㭨 †栠㴠眠湩潤湩敮䡲楥桧㭴紊攊獬晩⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮☠…搨捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮楗瑤籼搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笊 †眠㴠搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨 †栠㴠搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮效杩瑨汥敳椠搨捯浵湥潢祤☠…搨捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笊 †眠㴠搠捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴††‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮效杩瑨敲畴湲⠠眨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤☠…栨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤㬩紊⤨⤩㬩ਊਊ眊湩潤湯潬摡㴠映湵瑣潩⡮††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤䘢潯整䅲≤㬩 †瘠牡戠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭∨潢祤⤢せ㭝 †戠愮灰湥䍤楨摬昨㬩 †映献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠∠汢捯≫††潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氧捹獯潆瑯牥摁䙩慲敭⤧献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤潦瑯牥摁椮牦浡瑨汭㬧 †ਠਊ†† †⼠ 佄⁍湉摁 †⠠畦据楴湯椨味敲汬硩††††††慶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨晩慲敭⤧††††瑳汹潢摲牥㴠✠✰††††瑳汹慭杲湩㴠〠††††瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戧潬正㬧 †††攠献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽爧杩瑨㬧 †††攠献祴敬栮楥桧⁴‽㈧㐵硰㬧 †††攠献祴敬漮敶晲潬⁷‽栧摩敤❮††††瑳汹慰摤湩‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬眮摩桴㴠✠〳瀰❸ਊ††††慶獩求歯摥祂潄慭湩㴠映湵瑣潩⡮栠敲††††††††††慶汢捯敫䑤浯楡獮㴠嬠 †††††††∠湡湡慹潰湲㌱〰⸰牴灩摯挮浯Ⱒ †††††††∠硸灸牯确硸琮楲潰潣≭ †††††崠††††††慶汦条㴠映污敳†††††† †††††映牯 慶㵩㬰椠戼潬正摥潄慭湩敬杮桴※⭩††††††††††††††晩 牨晥献慥捲⡨戠潬正摥潄慭湩孳椠崠⤠㸠‽‰††††††††††††††††††汦条㴠琠畲㭥 †††††††素 †††††素 †††††爠瑥牵汦条†††† †††瘠牡朠瑥敍慴潃瑮湥⁴‽畦据楴湯 敭慴慎敭⤠ †††笠 †††††瘠牡洠瑥獡㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨敭慴⤧††††††潦椨〽※㱩敭慴敬杮桴※⭩⤫ †††††笠ਠ††††††††晩 敭慴孳嵩朮瑥瑁牴扩瑵⡥渢浡≥ 㴽洠瑥乡浡††††††††⁻ †††††††††爠瑥牵敭慴孳嵩朮瑥瑁牴扩瑵⡥挢湯整瑮⤢※ †††††††素ਠ††††††††††††敲畴湲映污敳†††††††† †††瘠牡朠瑥潃浭湥乴摯獥㴠映湵瑣潩⡮敲敧偸瑡整湲††††††††††慶潮敤‽絻††††††慶潮敤䅳㴠嬠㭝 †††††瘠牡瀠敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩⁴‽❛❡挧Ⱗ✠❢㭝 †††ਠ††††††昨湵瑣潩敧乴摯獥桔瑡慈敶潃浭湥獴渨慰瑴牥⥮ †††††笠 †††††††椠渨栮獡桃汩乤摯獥⤨††††††††††††††††††晩⠠慴乧浡㴽‽䤧剆䵁❅††††††††††††††††††††††敲畴湲映污敳††††††††††††††††††††潦瘨牡椠㴠〠※‼档汩乤摯獥氮湥瑧㭨椠⬫††††††††††††††††††††††晩⠠渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯呥灹㴽‽⤸☠…瀨瑡整湲琮獥⡴档汩乤摯獥楛潮敤慖畬⥥⤩ †††††††††††笠 †††††††††††††瘠牡愠敲乡浡‽慰瑴牥硥捥渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯噥污敵嬩崱††††††††††††††潮敤孳牡慥慎敭⁝‽㭮 †††††††††††素 †††††††††††攠獬晩⠠档汩乤摯獥楛潮敤祔数㴠㴽ㄠ††††††††††††††††††††††††††敧乴摯獥桔瑡慈敶潃浭湥獴渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩慰瑴牥⥮††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††⡽潤畣敭瑮戮摯ⱹ爠来硥慐瑴牥⥮㬩ਊ††††††潦瘨牡椠椠牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳††††††††††††††晩⠠潮敤孳牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳楛嵝††††††††††††††††††晩 獩牔汥楬⁸☦渠摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯††††††††††††††††††††††潮敤䅳瀮獵⡨潮敤孳牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳楛嵝瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤㬩 †††††††††素 †††††††††攠獬††††††††††††††††††††††潮敤䅳瀮獵⡨渠摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩⁝㬩 †††††††††素 †††††††素 †††††素 †††††爠瑥牵潮敤䅳†††††††† †††ਠ††††慶牰灯牥潎敤㴠渠汵㭬 †††瘠牡愠敲乡摯獥㴠朠瑥潃浭湥乴摯獥 敮⁷敒䕧灸 帧牡慥吠灹㵥愢敲彡尨睜⤫✢⤠⤠ †††映牯⠠慶‽㬰椠㰠愠敲乡摯獥氮湥瑧㭨椠⬫††††††††††慶‽慰獲䥥瑮木瑥潃灭瑵摥瑓汹⡥牡慥潎敤孳嵩⸩楷瑤⥨††††††晩⠠愨㸠‽〳⤰☠…愨㰠‽〴⤰††††††††††††††牰灯牥潎敤㴠愠敲乡摯獥楛㭝 †††††††戠敲歡††††††††††ਊ††††慶牰灯牥祴慎敭㴠朠瑥敍慴潃瑮湥⡴瀢潲数瑲≹ 籼映污敳††††晩 獩牔汥楬⁸☦⠠牰灯牥潎敤 ††††††††††牳‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴晩慲敭栮浴❬††††††牰灯牥潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥ⱥ瀠潲数乲摯楦獲䍴楨摬㬩 †††素 †††攠獬晩 獩牔汥楬⁸☦℠ 牰灯牥潎敤⤠⤠⼠ 汓灡琠敨愠癥湥桴畯桧⁴桴牥獩渠污捯瑡摥猠潬ੴ††††††††††牳‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴晩慲敭栮浴❬††††††瑳汹獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠潮敮㬧 †††††瘠牡挠楤⁶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨楤❶㬩 †††††挠楤瑳汹‽眢摩桴㌺〰硰活牡楧㩮〱硰愠瑵㭯㬢 †††††挠楤灡数摮桃汩⡤攠⤠††††††湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨楤ⱶ戠氮獡䍴楨摬㬩 †††素 †††攠獬晩 椡䉳潬敫䉤䑹浯楡⡮氠捯瑡潩牨晥⤠⤠ †††笠 †††††瘠牡椠橮⁆‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨晩慲敭⤧††††††湩䙪献祴敬戮牯敤‽〧㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹慭杲湩㴠〠††††††湩䙪献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫††††††湩䙪献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽渧湯❥††††††湩䙪献祴敬栮楥桧⁴‽㈧㐵硰㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹慰摤湩‽㬰 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹楷瑤‽㌧〰硰㬧 †††††椠橮⹆牳‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴晩慲敭栮浴❬ †††††椠⡦戠☠… 椡味敲汬硩簠⁼ 祴数景椠味敲汬硩㴠‽產摮晥湩摥• ⼯䄠汬漠桴牥琠楲潰牰灯ੳ††††††††††††††慶摣癩㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴搧癩⤧††††††††摣癩献祴敬㴠∠楷瑤㩨〳瀰㭸慭杲湩ㄺ瀰⁸畡潴∻††††††††摣癩愮灰湥䍤楨摬 湩䙪⤠††††††††湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨楤ⱶ戠氮獡䍴楨摬㬩 †††††素ਠ†††††⡽搠捯浵湥獩牔汥楬⁸⤩㰊猯牣灩㹴ਊ搼癩椠㵤琢形潣瑮楡敮≲猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮⌺䙄䍄䙃※潢摲牥戭瑯潴㩭瀱⁸潳楬㌣㌹㌹㬹瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹㤹ℹ浩潰瑲湡≴ਾℼⴭ潦浲渠浡㵥猢慥捲≨漠卮扵業㵴爢瑥牵敳牡档瑩⤨•摩✽敨摡牥獟慥捲❨㸠㰊湩異⁴祴数∽整瑸•汰捡桥汯敤㵲匢慥捲≨猠穩㵥〳渠浡㵥猢慥捲㉨•慶畬㵥∢ਾ椼灮瑵琠灹㵥戢瑵潴≮瘠污敵∽潇∡漠䍮楬正∽敳牡档瑩⤨㸢㰊是牯㹭㰊瑳汹㹥昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲††楷瑤㩨㤠㘱硰††慭杲湩›‰畡潴㠠硰††潰楳楴湯›敲慬楴敶ਊ潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵笠 †栠楥桧㩴㐠瀰㭸 †映湯楳敺›㐱硰††楬敮栭楥桧㩴㐠瀰㭸 †瀠摡楤杮›‰瀸㭸 †戠硯猭穩湩㩧戠牯敤潢㭸 †戠捡杫潲湵㩤⌠㑆㉆㥅††潢摲牥›瀱⁸潳楬䈣䉂䈸㬸 †琠慲獮瑩潩㩮戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬〳洰慥敳漭瑵ਬ††††††††潣潬〳洰慥敳昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢笠 †眠摩桴›〱┰潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥琢硥≴㩝潦畣††潢摲牥挭汯牯›䄣䐲㔰㬴 †戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬㩲⌠晦㭦 †戠硯猭慨潤㩷〠〠硰ㄠ瀲⁸㐭硰⌠㉁い㐵ਊ昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽畢瑴湯崢笠 †瀠獯瑩潩㩮愠獢汯瑵㭥 †琠灯›瀱㭸 †爠杩瑨›瀱㭸 †漠慰楣祴›㬱 †戠捡杫潲湵㩤⌠䙄䍄䙃††潣潬㩲⌠㘴㜳㐳††楷瑤㩨ㄠ㔲硰††畣獲牯›潰湩整㭲 †栠楥桧㩴㌠瀸㭸 †戠牯敤㩲渠湯㭥紊昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢昺捯獵縠椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戧瑵潴❮㩝潨敶Ⱳ昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数✽畢瑴湯崧栺癯牥笠 †戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬㩲⌠㕁䕃㘵††潣潬㩲⌠晦㭦紊昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢昺捯獵縠椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戧瑵潴❮⁝††慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯›㔣䄲䑅㭆 †挠汯牯›昣晦㰊猯祴敬ਾ㰊捳楲瑰ਾ畦据楴湯猠慥捲楨⡴笩 †ਠ††⼯搠瑥牥業敮攠癮物湯敭瑮ਠ††慶敳牡档敟癮ਠ††晩⠠祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶湩敤佸⡦⸢摰∮ ‾ㄭ †††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档ㄵ瀮祬潣潣⽭⽡㬧 †素攠獬晩⠠祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶湩敤佸⡦⸢慱∮ ‾ㄭ †††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档ㄵ焮祬潣潣⽭⽡㬧 †素攠獬†††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档ㄵ氮捹獯挮浯愯✯††瘊牡猠慥捲彨整浲㴠攠据摯啥䥒潃灭湯湥⡴潤畣敭瑮献慥捲敳牡档⸲慶畬⥥瘊牡猠慥捲彨牵‽敳牡档敟癮猫慥捲彨整浲楷摮睯漮数⡮敳牡档畟汲㬩ਊ敲畴湲映污敳紊㰊猯牣灩㸭㰊瑳汹㹥 †⸠摡敃瑮牥汃獡筳慭杲湩〺愠瑵絯㰊猯祴敬ਾ搼癩椠㵤琢形摡•汣獡㵳愢䍤湥整䍲慬獳•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正椡灭牯慴瑮※癯牥汦睯栺摩敤㭮眠摩桴㤺㘱硰∻ਾ愼栠敲㵦栢瑴㩰⼯摡牴捡業楮瑳牥慩㕬挮浯振楬正敮⽷愿㘽㜳㤳∴琠瑩敬∽畢汩潹牵漠湷眠扥楳整愠⁴牔灩摯挮浯•瑳汹㵥昢潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰※潢摲牥〺㸢㰊浩牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯祬氮杹潣⽭祬琯印瑩⽥浩条獥是敲䅥㉤樮杰•污㵴䴢歡潹牵漠湷映敲敷獢瑩湯吠楲潰潣≭猠祴敬∽潢摲牥〺※楤灳慬㩹汢捯≫⼠ਾ⼼㹡ਠ搼癩椠㵤愢彤潣瑮楡敮≲猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴映潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴㜺㠲硰∠ਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴搾捯浵湥牷瑩⡥祬潣彳摡❛敬摡牥潢牡❤⥝㰻猯牣灩㹴㰊搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴搾捯浵湥牷瑩⡥祬潣彳摡❛汳摩牥崧㬩⼼捳楲瑰‾ℼⴭ愠摤摥㜠㈯′ⴭਾ搼癩椠㵤䘢潯整䅲≤猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮⌺䙄䍄䙃※潢摲牥琭灯ㄺ硰猠汯摩⌠㤳㤳㤳※汣慥㩲潢桴※楤灳慬㩹潮敮※楷瑤㩨〱┰椡灭牯慴瑮※潰楳楴湯爺汥瑡癩㭥稠椭摮硥㤺㤹㤹ℹ浩潰瑲湡㭴栠楥桧㩴〹硰椡灭牯慴瑮㸢ਠ搼癩挠慬獳∽摡敃瑮牥汃獡≳猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※楷瑤㩨ㄹ瀶㭸㸢㰊牨晥∽瑨灴⼺愯瑤慲正洮湩獩整楲污⸵潣⽭汣捩湫睥㼯㵡㌶㌷㐹•楴汴㵥戢極摬礠畯睯敷獢瑩瑡吠楲潰潣≭猠祴敬∽汦慯㩴敬瑦※楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰※潢摲牥〺㸢㰊浩牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯祬氮杹潣⽭祬琯印瑩⽥浩条獥是敲䅥㉤樮杰•污㵴䴢歡潹牵漠湷映敲敷獢瑩湯吠楲潰潣≭猠祴敬∽潢摲牥〺※楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫∠⼠ਾ⼼㹡ਠ搼癩椠㵤昢潯整䅲彤潣瑮楡敮≲猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴映潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴㜺㠲硰㸢㰊晩慲敭椠㵤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁䙩慲敭•瑳汹㵥戢牯敤㩲㬰搠獩汰祡戺潬正※汦慯㩴敬瑦※敨杩瑨㤺瀶㭸漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※慰摤湩㩧㬰眠摩桴㜺〵硰㸢⼼晩慲敭ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶ਊ